The Kubrawiya order (سلسلة کبرویة) or Kubrawi order, also known as Firdausia Silsila, is a Sufi order that traces its spiritual lineage (Silsilah) to prophet Muhammad through Ali, Muhammad’s cousin, son-in-law and the First Imam. This is in contrast to most other Sufi orders that trace their lineage to Ali. The Kubrawiya order is named after its 13th-century founder Najmuddin Kubra, who lived in Bukhara under the Khwarazmian dynasty (present day Uzbekistan). The Mongols captured Bukhara in 1221 and killed much of the population including Sheikh Najmuddin Kubra.
The Kubrawiya order places emphasis on being a universal approach, applicable to both Sunnis and Shiites. It is popular in eastern India, Bangladesh and Mauritius.
Prominent feature of the Kubrawiya order is that all its spiritual masters were believed to be followers of Shi’ism. For instance of the work of Saad ad Din Humya make reference to the connection between divine guardianship (wilayat) and prophet-hood (nubuwah) while his disciple, Nasafi too has quoted as Saad ad Din Hamya as proclaiming that the station of divine guardianship (Walayah) and prophet-hood exclusively belong to The Twelve Imams
Further more Ala ud-Daula Simnani has also enumerated and eulogised the virtuous qualities of Ahl al Bayt and has included the discussion on the description of the Ghadir-e-Khum event affirming the successorship of Ali. He has also presented the description of a true Shi’a (followers as like the period of Ali) and the difference between a nominal Shi’a while regarding he Sufis to be the true followers of Ali because they are obeying Ali in real sense always respect the companons of Prophet in his book.
Branches of Kubrawiya order
In Iran the Kubrawiya order split into branches after Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani was succeed by Khwaja Ishaq Khatlani. Difference had arisen between the two claimants to successorship of one group which called itself the Nurbakshia group comprising the supporters of Nurbaksh and other the supporters of Barzish Abadi, in Mashhad.
The Noorbakshia Order
The Noorbakhshiya has emerged in the 15th century in Iran as a splinter group of the Kubrawiya Sufi order. A similar controversy has later developed about the religious affiliation of Syed Muhammad Noorbakhsh who had been a disciple of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani’s principal successor Khwaja Ishaq Khatlani and who is being regarded as the founder of the Kubrawiya.
Noorbakshi doctrines were preached in Kashmir and Baltistan in the early 16th century by Mir Sham ud-Din Iraqi himself a disciple of Sayyid Muhammad Noorbakhshis’s son and spiritual heir, Shah Qasim Faidbakhsh.
The Dahabiyya Order
This order has been attributed to Syed Abdullah Barzish Abadi and it spread during first years of Safavid dynasty first in Khorasan, then in Shiraz.