Gleanings from the Islamic Contribution in Agriculture

 

1. Introduction

Since the beginning, Islam encouraged the practice of agriculture. Several verses in the Qur’an are connected to agriculture, as a part of the creation process and life on earth. Likewise, the hadiths (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad) that encouraged Muslims to practice agriculture are abundant. Within the same conception, Muslim rulers paid much attention to agriculture as it constituted then as a major economic activity and a pillar of the Islamic treasury. Therefore, a continuous effort was directed towards reforming lands for cultivation, digging rivers and irrigation channels and, wherever appropriate, pieces of land were attributed to those who lacked them, to cultivate. This became a recorded history [1].

Figure 1a-b: Two views from Kitab al-filaha of Ibn al-Awwâm: (a) manuscript page (Source) and front cover of the Spanish translation edition  by Joseph Antonio Banqueri (Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1802). (Source). The Kitab al-Filahah al-Andalusiyah (The Book of Andalusian Agriculture) by Abu Zakariya Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn al-Awwam al-Ishbili (d. 1185) consists of 35 chapters dealing with agronomy, cattle and poultry raising, and beekeeping. It deals with 585 plants; explains the cultivation of more than 50 fruit trees; and includes many valuable observations on soils, manures, plant grafting, and plant diseases.

In addition, agriculture was considered to be a feature of the human settlement on earth, as whenever people started plowing the earth, planting crops, taking care and cultivating the same would be obliged to settle down and leave the nomadic life. That reason probably incited Omar ibn al-Khattab to initially forbid his soldiers abroad from taking agriculture as a profession so as not to resort to rest, feel calm and leave struggle, but later on he permitted part of them to do so [2].

In the following article, focus will be laid on three aspects of interest in plants taken in Islamic history: the linguistic aspect, the use of herbs and plant products in medicine, and the development of agricultural science.

2. Agriculture and plants in linguistics and medicine

Linguists paid special attention to collect and record names of plants and technical terms related to agriculture. This endeavour supplied a rich treasure of vocabulary reflected in several specialised dictionaries, such as Al-Mukhassas (The Specialised) of Ibn Sîdah. Whomever has the chance to observe those linguistic essays on agriculture and cultivation will be completely amazed of its punctuality and comprehensive information, particularly in what regards as “Plant Anatomy Science” at present.

In these essays, one can read (in Arabic) a precise description for the plant throughout all its stages of growth. As evidence for the punctuality of the Arabic language on this topic, let us read the following paragraph from Al-Mukhassas:

“When initially planted and that it starts to grow, the palm tree is called al-naqîra’ (throb); al-naqîra is the umbilicus pip. The throb, the linguist Abu Zaid explained, is the tiny hole on the back of the pip from where the palm tree starts its growth. The next phase is the herp (najîma), then the thorn, then the plaitwork then another one and another one; when the palm becomes a tree, it is called mat (al-farsh), when the plaitworks are numerous and widened, it is called the sharp (al-safîfî), then the stripe (‘asîb), then sap (al-nasigha) and finally the pronchial (sha’îb)“[3].

Figure 2a-b: (a) Manuscript page from the treatise of agriculture by Ibn Luyun (Almería, dated 740 H/1348 CE, Maghribi script, hosted in the Escuela de Estudios Arabes in Granada) (Source); (b) front cover of the book Ibn Luyun: tratado de agricultura by Joaquina Eguaras Ibáñez (Granada: Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife, 1988).

In medicine, Muslims concentrated on plant preservation in respect to its characteristics and medical features. Dâwûd b. ‘Umar Al-Antaki said about the wild thyme:

“A wild fine leaves almost black plant. There is one kind of it called ‘Donkey or Mountain thyme’, wider in leaves, less in bitterness, but the garden thyme is planted like the mint. It is an antidote medicine against colic and almost all types of poisons. It gives a good taste for all foods and refines blood[4].”

3. Aspects of the Islamic agricultural tradition

The core of the Islamic agricultural traditions lie in what is referred to in Arabic as “zira’at al-‘ardh” (land cultivation) in the larger sense, which is the main subject of this research. Therefore, it would be more appropriate here to refer to Ibn Al-`Awwam who explained that:

land cultivation means fixing the land, planting trees, growing cereals and grains and taking care of the same, in addition to a good knowledge of the fertile, semi fertile and useless land. Further, the knowledge of each kind of trees and plants to be planted in a given earth, and the choice of the best kind and proper time, water, insecticides and fertilizer for each kind of plants and trees are essential. How to store the production is also included[5].”

This wide range of agricultural knowledge needs more than a brief survey. Therefore, in the following article we will only briefly outline some aspects.

3.1. Soils in lexicography

In his famous Kitab al-filaha (Book of agriculture), the Andalusian scholar Ibn Al-‘Awwam states:

The first thing to know about agriculture is the earth itself, whether good for planting or not. Who is not well aware of that will not succeed [in agriculture]  [6].” This statement specifies clearly that agriculturalists should have vast knowledge regarding the earth, its nature, type, plants and trees which should be planted in the said soil,but also its coldness, heat, degree of humidity, desiccation and the impact of all these factors on the plants[7].

In spite of the variety and differences among the nature of lands, they could be listed as to their kinds as follows: Mild, hard, mountain, sandy, black, white, yellow, red, rough and reddish [8].

Among other factors, knowledge should be obtained of the reason for tree decay, which is related to the type of soil. Therefore, it is recommended that the soil should be changed as agronomists do today; in addition, it is also recommends that the soil of the ornamental trees and plants should be changed each six months [9].

3.2. Irrigation engineering

Some of the methods of irrigation that were followed by Muslims were simple, whilst others were complicated. These methods varied from one country to the other. In Yemen, the historian Al-Hamdani said about Al-Samman (a famous water source):

The water there was so deep, ranged from 70 to 100 spread arms [bâ’, 4 bâ’-s are equal to 3 m]; there also were artificial wells and small size lakes for water gathering and storage coated on the sides by hard stones [10].”

The irrigation engineers of Khumarawayh designed a strange method for irrigation. They coated the trunks of the trees with a gold like brass; in between the brass and the tree trunk, lead spouts from where the water flows to ready channels spread through the garden [11].

The geographer Al-Istakhri reported in his book Al-Masalik wa-‘l-mamalik (routes and kingdoms):

In Marw, (now in Khurasan, Iran) there was an organized department specially established for water management of 10,000 staff[12].”

Figure 3: Front cover of Kanz al-Fawa’id fi Tanwi’ al-Mawa’id: Medieval Arab-Islamic Culinary Art, edited by Manuela Marin and David Waines (Beirut: in Kommission bei Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart, 1993). An anonymous medieval Arabic cookbook, possibly of Egyptian provenance, compiled sometime during the Mamluk period (1250 – 1517). The book contains more than 800 recipes for the preparation of dishes, sweets, drinks, medicines, etc. from different regions in the Middle East with frequent health references attached to them.

The irrigation legislation and methods inherited from Islamic history were so efficient that their remnants survived the course of time – some are still enforced and in use in some parts of Andalusia in present day Spain. The Water Court of Valencia is still holding weekly sessions every Thursday as was the case during Islamic rule[13].

Further evidence on the well advanced irrigation engineering science of the Muslims is that present in the building substance found in Fowkhara Gate, on the bank of Al-Nahrawan River, near Samarra, Iraq. Having analysed the material, a scholar reported that the material which was found in the cylinder from where the water was running is made of pure mud and clay as a cofactor for melting. When the cylinder was melted on an initial melting degree of 1050°c., it transformed to another anti-corrosion substance [14].

In each agricultural book, we may find a description for water types and to what range they are suitable for different kinds of plants. A detailed explanation is also given on how to discover ground water, the manner in which to drill as well as how to conduct tests to find hidden water [15].

Arab scientists were able to procure the water from the bubbling springs by means of lead pipes. What is more, they used engineering devices to measure the height of the land and to dig irrigation channels underneath the surface of the earth [16]. Finally, they invented machines to measure the levels of river water [17].

3.3. Fertilizers

Ibn Al-Hajjaj said: “You should know that if the earth is not fertilized, it becomes weak but if over fertilized it will be burnt” [18]. This theory indicates a farsighted point of view and a shrewd mind. With time, plants exhaust their food stored in the earth and that should be replaced, but not in surplus quantities. For this reason agronomists recommend that that the manufacturers’ instructions labelled on fertilizers containers should be strictly followed.

Figure 4: This illustration of sugar cane is from an Arabic manuscript on natural history. (Source).

Due to the importance of the fertilizers, Ibn Bassal, Ibn Hajjaj and Ibn Al-‘Awwam explained in detail the types of fertilizers and their suitability for certain kinds of earth and plants. They also discussed the use of tree leaves for the soil [19] and regarding compost fertilizers. Ibn Bassal divided his observations in to three types, one solely being that of a mixture of grass, hay and ash to be placed in a hole. Followed by water being poured over them and subsequently left to rot[20]. Using fertilizers is restricted only on earth and plant reform. Ibn Bassal mentioned that the pumpkin is first planted on fertilizer benches then when it is strong enough, moved to the normal soil [21].

3.4. Art of planting

It is not an exaggeration to say that the instruction concerning the art of planting in the old Arabic manuals remain valid today. Their authors compiled them from practice and observation of the basic principles of botany and agronomy. Having studied the earth and selected the types of plants provided to suit said earth, they used to prepare the soil.

In this respect, Ibn Bassal said on planting pumpkin: “In cold countries like Al-Andalus, pumpkin should be planted during January in benches covered with fertilizers, then in April when it got strong enough, it should be moved to its permanent soil [22].”

As to how to plant with the fertilizer, he advised:

The fertilizer is to be levelled, small holes are to be made with almost 20 cm separating each hole from the other, and four to five seeds with their narrow edges up towards the air are to be placed in each hole. When this is done, the seeds are to be covered by fertilizer five cm thick, then completely covered with cabbage leaves one after the other. The cabbage leaves work as condenser; the heat of the fertilizer goes up, condensed by the leaves, then returns back to the plants as drops of water for irrigation. When the plant grows to a good limit, it will be moved to patches of land surrounded by dikes to rest finally [23].”

This complicated process reminds us of the modern drip irrigation and greenhouses [24].

Figure 5: The digital library of the Princeton University Library includes this Arabic botanical manuscript from the 15th century that is from the Robert Garrett Collection donated to the University in 1942. Princeton University Library Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Work on botany in Arabic, Page images. (Source).

Out of the features of the advancement of the art of planting is that they planted some vegetables as spinach around the year [25]. Ibn Al-Faqih Al Hamadhani stated that in Iraq you can find any variety of fruits of vegetables at any time throughout the year [26].

3.5. Contention of the agricultural diseases

The Arabic experts in agriculture focused on following up the diseases of the plants and wrote about them thoroughly. Even a lexicographer, Ibn Sidah wrote a complete chapter in Al-Mukhassas devoted to the reasons that prevent a plant from growing healthily [27]. He also wrote a chapter about the corrosion disease that affects the plant leaves [28], ], and a third chapter about the diseases that affect the plants, palm trees and tree trunk[29].

Plant owners were interested in curing their plants to improve production. Whoever reads the Arabic books of agriculture will realise that they followed a strict method in protecting the trees and plants, however sometimes these theories and/or practices were mixed with superstitions [30].

To substantiate that, it will be enough to refer here to two methods of treatment that Ibn Bassal reported. The first is that the fungus which hits the trunk of the pumpkin and dries it. This treatment consists in burying the diseased part inside the soil, hoping that a new one will grow. The second was described by Ibn Al-‘Awwam, who quoted from the text of Ibn Hajjaj. He outlined:

“If you see a tree of little production and weak branches with worms inside the fruits and drops the same down more than usual for years, that means that the soil is improper. To treat that you have to dig around the roots 2.5 m away from the main trunk, remove the soil and fill the hole that you dug, with a new one taken from the surface of another soil then press it heavily with wooden sticks. If you find the roots almost rotten, cut those roots then add natural fertilizer, if you found the roots spoiled by worms, add ash to the fertilizer. If you found the soil is too moist, fill the hole with dry red soil or sea (or river) sand mixed with old fertilizer” [31].

Ibn Hajjaj continued his explanation on the disease probabilities by giving a detailed description of how to contend that disease. It is also worth to state here that these Muslim experts were aware of the importance of the ash in killing the worms and insects which are produced from the rotted fertilizer[32].

3.6. The art of naturalising trees

The process of naturalising the trees, namely changing their wild nature or kind to a domestic one, was not randomly made. It should be made in accordance with precise rules. This is what we learn from the introduction of Ibn Bassal on naturalization. He said:

“Naturalization needs research and observation as the misfortunes are numerous. The naturalization on the other hand is useful as it speeds the production of the tree. You should know the nature and age of the tree and choose the proper time for naturalization”[33].

Figure 6: Table of contents of the electronic edition of ‘Ilm al-milaha fi ‘ilm al-filaha, a book on agriculture written by Abdel-Ghani b. Isma’il al-Nablusi, a Syrian writer (1050H-1143 H/1641-1730) (read online here).

Muslim scientists did not only state the rules, techniques and types of naturalisation, but also naturalised the odd types of trees [34], Examples of this include the naturalising of the fig with the olive and the rose with grapes, apples and almonds [35]. The art of naturalising in Toledo was so advanced that the historian Ibn Sa’id said that he saw multiple types of fruits on one tree [36].

3.7. Fruits and agricultural products preservation

There are different ways of preserving fruits and agricultural products. We will mention hereafter the oddest ones. Ibn Hajjaj said that the apple, pomegranate, quince, pear, citron and grape can be preserved on trees by means of glass pots with narrow mouths that are wide from inside. This he believed would be enough to contain the fruit when they ripen. The fruit is to then be inserted in the glass pot at the flowering stage, followed by the pot being tied firmly to the branch so as to save it from the wind. If the fruit is to be kept for long in the glass pot, the pot should then be bunched down to let air in [37].

If fruits are immerged in honey, they will be preserved for a long time with no change [38]. Ibn Bassal said that apples can be preserved in special floor pots laced with pieces of linen cloth where the apples are to be arranged. When the first row is completed, other linen pieces should be place, this is followed by a second layer of apples being placed, and so on until the pot is filled. Finally it is sealed with linen and clay prior tostoring it in a cool place  [39]. From our modern experience, one may question is this not the basic idea for preserving apples in refrigerators?

Ibn Al Hajjaj also stated by mixing wheat with pomegranate leaves, galls, and a quantity of oak lumber ashes, wheat may be protected from woodworms and licorice [40].

3.8. Industrialisation of the agricultural products

It was a widely followed rule that each Arabic agricultural book must include, even if brief, a description on the industrialisation of agricultural products. Examples regarding these include the preparation of raisins, dried fig, vinegar, pickles, jam, sugar, cotton, oils and perfumes.

Ibn Hajjaj further continues to describe how to make raisins. He directed the garden owner to twist ripe bunches of grapes for two or three consecutive nights, followed byleaving them to dry. If one prefers to preserve the raisins, Ibn Hajjaj recommends ensuring dried bunches are placed in clay covered jars with dried grape leaves, and when filled up, to cover them with other layers of dried leaves. Lastly, to make sure they are kept in a cool place devoid of smoke or humidity  [41].

Yemen was famous in producing carrot, citron, pumpkin and peach jams. The solid hadouri honey was a specialty of Yemen and deemed to be a precious gift in Mecca and Iraq [42]. The honey in Yemen was prepared by drying it in the sun and keeping it in cans for several days until it becomes solid. Lastly, the cans are then sealed [43].

In Marw (Khurasan, Iran), water melon was shredded and exported to Iraq. Olive pickles were combined with honey, oil, vinegar, thyme and coriander for good taste [44].

The interest of classical agronomists of the Arabic tradition in flowers and roses made the perfume industry an advanced one. The city of Jur was famous in manufacturing and exporting various kinds of perfume [45]. The twelfth chapter of Al-Nuwayri’s book Nehayatu al-‘arab (the most desired) presented many recipes for preparing perfumes and scents by the way of distillation.

3.9. Gardening and other arts

Islamic culture did not neglect the aesthetical nature of plants; hence the attention of humankind was brought through the marvellous beauty of nature that in turn reminds us of the glory of God. Therefore, a special interest was given to gardens, where different kinds of roses, plants and flowers were planted. The famous historian Al-Maqrizi said, in describing the garden of Khumarawayh:

He planted various kinds of trees in his garden. He planted palm trees of different heights. A standing man can reach the fruit of some trees while a sitting man can reach some others. The taste was even different. Roses and saffron were also planted, in addition to other plants and a garden keeper was also appointed to take good care of them [46].”

Withstanding other agricultural arts that attract attention in the Arabic tradition, the production of different types of grapes e.g. seedless grapes [47], and year-round roses, as well asapples also struck the interest of scientists in Muslim civilisation[48]. They were also able to control the color of roses and flowers [49]; In addition, they also configured how to select the colour of flowers [49]; lastly, they placed oranges in basins surrounded by water tanks so it appeared as if it they were planted from inside these tanks [50].

Muslim scholars scored other marks of success to be registered in their glorious register. Having taken into consideration the climate conditions and the type of natural soil, they tamed some wild plants and nurtured them in gardens as a result. These plants were first planted in special pots at different times of the year and in different types of soil [51].

3.10. Spreading of agricultural products

In a series of noteworthy research results published since 1974, Andrew M. Watson, from Toronto University, recorded the history of the radical transformation of agriculture production in the Islamic world and the spreading of the agricultural products in the geographical sphere with which Muslims traded [52]. The author also indicated the role of Muslim agriculture in acclimatising tropical plants when uprooting them to the territories of the Middle East. Thus spurring the development of new types of corn and citrus fruits in order to better suit the hot climate. The author listed 726 plants that were given Latin names derived from Arabic origins [53].

The investigation of A. M. Watson set the stage for a paradigmatic shift in considering the real impact the Islamic agricultural tradition had on three continents (Asia, Africa and Europe) during a long period, until the 13th century. The author named this shift as the Medieval Green Revolution (transformed later to the “Muslim Agricultural Revolution”, “Islamic Agricultural Revolution”, and “Islamic Green Revolution”) [54]. All those expressions correspond to the same reality postulating a fundamental transformation in agriculture from the 8th century to the 13th century in Muslim lands [55].

Watson argued that the economy established by the traders of the Muslim world across the Old World enabled the diffusion of many crops and farming techniques among different parts of the Islamic world. This was in conjunction with the adaptation of crops and techniques from and to regions beyond the Islamic world. Crops from Africa such as sorghum, crops from China such as citrus fruits, and numerous crops from India such as mangos, rice, cotton and sugar cane, were distributed throughout Islamic lands, which, according to Watson, previously had never nurtured these crops. Watson listed eighteen such crops being diffused during the Islamic period. Some writers have referred to the diffusion of numerous crops during this period as the “globalisation of crops” [56]. Watson argued that these introductions, along with an increased mechanisation of agriculture, led to major changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover, agricultural production and income, population levels, urban growth, the distribution of the labour force, linked industries, cooking, diet, and clothing in the Islamic world [57].

In a limited scope, we mention also the flowers which were brought to Europe by the Arabs : Jasmine, blue and yellow roses, red and white camellia amongst others[58]. As evidence of the impact of the Arabs on spreading plants, Mustafa Al-Shehabi confirmed the existence of a number of roses and plants names in the French language [59].

To conclude, it may be interesting to state that the story we find in some Chinese ancient documents date back to the 13th century. Unearthed by Hui-lin li, a professor of botany in the American University of Pennsylvania, these documents state that navigators originating from the Islamic world reached America prior to Christopher Columbus, where they brought various kinds of plants. This theory was the fruit of 9 years of research Dr Li dedicated in tracing multiple destinations throughout the world. The aforesaid documents confirm that Muslims brought and raised the papaya, pineapple, pumpkin and the Indian corn in a region named “Molan-pi”, which may correspond to some part of the Americas [60].

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Aayatul Kursi

Image result for ayatul kursi

Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem

Allahu laaa ilaaha illaa huwal haiyul qai-yoom; laa taakhuzuhoo sinatunw wa laa nawm; lahoo maa fissamaawaati wa maa fil ard; man zallazee yashfa’u indahooo illaa be iznih; ya’lamu maa baina aideehim wa maa khalfahum; wa laa yuheetoona beshai ‘immin ‘ilmihee illa be maa shaaaa; wasi’a kursiyyuhus samaa waati wal arda wa la ya’ooduho hifzuhumaa; wa huwal aliyyul ‘azeem

اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لاَ تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلاَ نَوْمٌ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلاَ يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلاَّ بِمَا شَاءَ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاواتِ وَالأَرْضَ وَلاَ يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ

“Allah! There is no god but He – the Living, The Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him Nor Sleep. His are all things In the heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede In His presence except As he permitteth? He knoweth What (appeareth to His creatures As) Before or After or Behind them. Nor shall they compass Aught of his knowledge Except as He willeth. His throne doth extend Over the heavens And on earth, and He feeleth No fatigue in guarding And preserving them, For He is the Most High. The Supreme (in glory).” 

Benfits of Ayatul Kursi

1).Hadhrat Ali bin Kaab (Radiahallahu Anhu) remarks that Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked him,” Which is the most high ranking Aayat in the Qur’aan Kareem?” He said, ” Allaah and His Rasul know best”. Rasulallah repeated this statement very often. Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) stated, “Ayatul Kursi”. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:”Oh Abul Munzar (family name of Abi bin Kaab). May you be blessed by this knowledge. I swear by that Being in whose Hands and Control is my life, that this Ayat has one tongue and two lips. It is by the threshold of Allaah’s Arsh, Mentioning His purity”.

2) Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) states that there was a room of dates, which he used to guard. He suspected that some dates were going missing. Thus one night he stood vigil and saw an animal like a young person. Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) said: “I greeted and received a reply”. I asked,” Who are you? Man or Jinn?” It said, “Jinn. I said, Give me your hand”. He outstretched his hand. I noticed that the hand was like that of a dog. Its hair like the hair of the dog. I asked, “Are Jinns created like this?” It said, ” the Jinns know there are amongst them more stronger ones”. I enquired,” Why did you steal?”. He replied,” I have come to know that you love to give charity so I decided to take a part also.” Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) said: ” Who will save us from your evil? It said, Aayatul Kursi which is in Surah Baqarah. He who reads it at night will be saved from our evil till the morning and he who reads it in the morning will be saved from our evil till the night.”

In the morning Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) came to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and narrated the entire event to him. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said,”That rascal has stated the truth although he is a great liar.”

3) It is reported from Hadhrat Askee Baqri that Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) came to the abode of the Muhajreen when one person asked, “In the Qur’aan Kareem which is the most lofty Ayat?” Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) repeated “Ayatul Kursi”.

4) Hadhrat Hassan reports “Marfoonaan”,” I have been given Ayatul Kursi. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said,” Surah Fateha, Ayatul Kursi and the two Ayats of Al-Imraan (Shaheedal Allaah – 18th Ayat), and “Qul Allaahumma Malekal mulk til Bi Ghairi Hisaab (Ayat 26/7) are attached to the Arsh and say, “Oh our Rabb, You are sending us onto earth to disobedient ones!!! Allaah says ,” I have given you such status, whosoever from amongst my servants recites you after every Salaat, his resting place will be Jannat. And I will make his abode in Jannatul Quddoos and fulfill 70 needs of his daily needs, the least of which is forgiving him and saving him from all enemies of evils.

It is a quarter of the Qur’aan Kareem.
5) Hadhrat Anas (Radiahallahu Anhu)narrates that Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked one of his companions: ” Oh, so and so are you married?” He replied: “No, I do not have enough wealth that I may marry.”, Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Do you know Surah Qul Huwallaahu Ahad?” The Sahaba replied: “I know”. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “It is equal to a quarter of the Qur’aan. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked: “Do you not know Qul Yaa Ayyuhal Kaafiroon?” The Sababi replied “I know”. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said ” “It is equal to a quarter of the Qur’aan.” Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked, “Do you not know Surah “Iza Zul Zilzilaat ” ?” The Sahaabi replied, “I Know”. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “It is a quarter of the Qur’aan”. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked: “Do you not know Surah Iza Jaa a Nasrullaahi Wal Fath” The Sahabi replied “I Know” Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said, it is a quarter of the Qur’aan. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked: “Do you know the Ayatul Kursi?” The Sahabi replied “I know”. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said, “It is equal to a quarter of the Qur’aan. Marry, Marry, Marry.”

Consistency and Ayatul Kursi
6) Hadhrat Anas (Radiahallahu Anhu) said that Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said, “The one who recites Ayatul Kursi after every fard Salaat will be protected until the next Salaat and this is constantly done by a Nabi or a Siddiq or a martyr.

7) Hadhrat Hassan bin Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) says, “A person once asked: “Oh Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) what does that person receive who recites Ayatul Kursi after every Fard Salaat ? Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ” That person remains under the protection of Allaah until the next Salaat.”
8) Hadhrat Anas (Radiahallahu Anhu) says: Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked; “Do you know which Ayat in the Qur’aan is most lofty? ” I said, Allaah and his Rasul know more.” Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) read Ayatul Kursi

9) Hadhrat Efai bin Abdullah Kallee said that one person asked.”Oh Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam), which Ayat in the Qur’aan is the most lofty one?” Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ” Ayatul Kursi”. The person asked,”Which Ayat has those benefits which you desire for your Ummah, in the Qur’aan?” Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The last Ayat of Surah Baqarah, for it is from the treasures of Allaah from underneath the threshold of the Arsh. It encompasses all the good of this world and the Aakhiraat”.

10) Hadhrat Muhammad bin al Saumi bin Al Salsal bin Damasc narrates from his father, who in turn, narrates from his father that Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ” Whoever recites Ayatul Kursi after every fard Salaat, there is only death between him and Jannat”, he will enter into Jannat immediately when he dies.

11) Hadhrat Ibne Anas (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The one who recites Ayatul Kursi after every Fard Salaat, Allaah Ta’aala will grant him a gratifying heart, actions of the truthful and reward like the Ambiyaa .Special mercies will descend upon him, and death is the only barrier from his entrance into Jannat. On dying he will enter Janaat”.

Blessing in the food
12) Hadhrat Ayesha (R.A.) narrates that one person came to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and said that there was absolutely no “Barakat” (blessings) in the things at home. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) replied, “Why are you neglectful of Ayatul Kursi.”
Whenever Aayatul Kursi is recited upon food, Allaah Ta’aala will increase the Barakat in that food or curry.
13) Hadhrat Ibn Masood (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that Allaah the Lofty did not create any thing in the skies or on earth, in Jannat or Jahannam, loftier than Ayatul Kursi.

14) Hadhrat Ibn Masood (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that no space in the sky, or on the earth is loftier than Ayatul Kursi.

To make Satan flee for protection of wealth, property and home
15) Hadhrat Masood (R.A.) states that a person left his home and met a Jinn on the way. The jinn asked him, “Can you drop me down?, If you do so then I will teach you such an Ayat that if you recite it upon entering your home, Satan will not enter.” They wrestled and the person dropped the Jinn down. The jinn said:”Read Ayatul Kursi, because that person who recites it upon entering the home, Shaitaan flees like a donkey making a sound from its posterior runs away.

A person mentioned to Hadhrat Ibn Masood that the person (who dropped the Jinn) could only be Hadhrat Umar (Radiahallahu Anhu).

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrates this (above) Hadith from Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam), with the addition that there is an Ayat in Surah Baqara, which is the chief ayat of the Qur’aan. Whosoever recites it in a house wherein Shaitaan is, he (Shaitaan) will leave.

16) Hadhrat Ibne Masood (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that a person requested Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) to teach him something that will benefit him. “Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said,”Read Ayatul Kursi, it will protect you, your children, home and even those houses surrounding your house.”

17) Hadhrat Ibn Umar (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrates that once Hadhrat Umar (Radiahallahu Anhu) came to the people and said, “Who amongst you can tell me which is the most lofty Ayat in the Qur’aan, which Ayat directs one most towards justice and fairness, which Ayat creates the most fear and which Ayat creates hope for mercy?” All remained silent. “Hadhrat Ibn Masood (Radiahallahu Anhu) said,”I heard Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) say from the Mimbar (pulpit) that Aayatul Kursi is the Loftiest in the Qur’aan, and the Ayat which encourages justice and fairness is ( Arabic P12) and the Ayat that creates the most fear is ( Arabic P12) of the Ayat that creates the most hope of mercy is ( Arabic P12).

18) Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (Radiahallahu Anhu) said that when Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) recited the last Ayat of Surah Baqarah and Ayatul Kursi then he laughed and said,” These have come from the treasures of Allaah.” and when he read (May Ya’mal Soo), then he said (Inna li llaah…) and chose humility and meekness.

19) It is reported that when ever Hadhrat Abdur Rahman Bin Auf (R.A.) entered his home, he used to recite Ayatul Kursi in its corners.

20) Hadhrat Hassan (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrates from Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who said , ” Jibraeel came to me and informed me that a rebellious Jinn is plotting against you, so when you retire to your bed, then recite Ayatul Kursi. “

21) Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that the chief of the Ayats of the Qur’aan Kareem is Ayatul Kursi.

22) Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) says “I have heard Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) say that person who recites Ayatul Kursi after every Salaat, only death prevents him from Jannat and who recites it whilst retiring to his sleeping place, Allaah will protect his house, his neighbours and even his surroundings.

23) Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that I cannot comprehend that a person who is a born Muslim, or intelligent or one who accepted Islaam in a rational (Arabic) state spending the night without reciting Ayatul Kursi. If you know how lofty this is (you will never discard it), it has been given to your Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) from under the treasures of the arsh. It has not been given to any Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) before your Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and I have never spent a night without reciting this Ayat thrice. I recite it in the last 2 Rakaats of Witr after Esha and also when I retire to my sleeping place

24) Hadhrat Auf bin Maalik (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that Hadhrat Abu Zar (Radiahallahu Anhu) who was sitting near Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked: “Oh Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) which is the most lofty Ayat Allaah revealed to you?” Allaah’s Rasul recited Ayatul Kursi.

Hadhrat Ma’aaz bin Jabal (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that he stored the dates for charity of Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) in a room for safe keeping. I sensed that there was a shortage daily therein. I complained to Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) about this. He said that this was the work of Satan and I must stay alert for him. Thus I sat in the barn that night. When some part of the night passed, Shaitaan came in the shape of an elephant. When he came near the door, he changed his shape and entered through one of the holes of the door, moved towards the dates and began eating. I dragged my cloth near him and said: “I testify that there is no one worthy of worship but Allaah and that Muhammad is his Servant and Rasul. Oh Allaah’s enemy you are usurping the dates of charity whereas the poor are more deserving of this than you. I will definitely apprehend you and take you to Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who will humiliate you.” At this Shaitaan pledged that he will not do this act again.

In the morning I came to Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who asked me about my prisoner. I stated that he had vowed not to steal again. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said that he (Satan) will come again so be alert. The next night also I sat alert. The same thing occurred and once again he (Satan) pledged not to steal. I left him. In the morning, I narrated the whole event to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who said that he (Satan) will come again. On the third night the same thing happened once again. I apprehended him and this time I said,”Oh Allaah’s enemy, you have pledged twice and this is the third time (now I will not leave you). He (Satan) said,” I have children and have come from Nasabeen ( a place between Masool and Syria). If I receive anything less in status than this (dates), then I would not have come here. We left this city of yours when your Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was sent together with two Ayats which removed us from here to Nasabeen. Shaitaan does not enter any home when these two Ayats have been recited in it”. He said this thrice. “If you leave me, I will show you these two Ayats”. I agreed. He said,” Ayatul Kursi and the last Ayat of Surah Baqarah (Amanas Rasul….).”Thus I let him go. In the morning I came to Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and told him what had transpired. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said, “That rascal has spoken the truth even though he is a liar.”

Hadhrat Ma’aaz (Radiahallahu Anhu) says after that he used to recite this and blow on the dates and there were no shortages in the room.

26) Hadhrat Abu Asaad Saeedee (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrates that he plucked the fruits from his orchard and kept them in a room. Jinnaat used used to come to this room and steal the fruit. This put them in difficulty and they complained to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) about it. He said,”This is (the work of) a Jinn. Oh Abu Asaad, listen attentively, when he (the Jinn) has entered, then say. “I take the name of Allaah” and say “accept Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) sayings”. The Jinn said, “Oh Abu Asaad, do not take me to Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). I vow by Allaah that I will not set foot in your home, nor steal your fruit. Also I will show you such an Ayat that if you recite it on your house then you will think I have died. If you read it on your utensils then no one will be able open its lid.” I promised to leave him. He became happy and said. ” The Ayat, is Ayatul Kursi. This Sahabi came to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and related the entire event to him, upon which Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ” He (Jinn) spoke the truth although he is (normally)a liar.”

27) Hadhrat Abu Amama Sadi bin Ijlaan (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said,” Whosoever recites Ayatul Kursi after every fard Salaat, the only thing preventing his entry into Janaat is death.

Ism Azam is in Ayatul Kursi
28) Hadhrat Abu Amama (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) stated, that the Isme Azam (blessed Name of Allaah Jalle Jalaalahu) , through which the invoker’s desire is definitely fulfilled appears in 3 Surahs of the Qur’aan. Surah Baqarah, Al-Imraan and Ta Haa. Hadhrat Abu Amama (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that he searched for it and found it in Ayatul Kursi of Surah Baqarah, and “La illaha illah Huwal haya …..” in Al-Imraan and “Wa Anatil wujuhu…..” in Surah Ta Haa.

29) Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was staying in a room at Hadhrat Abu Ayoob (Radiahallahu Anhu). Food provisions were kept in a small basket. A cat used to enter from the air vent and take the food away. Hadhrat Abu Ayoob (Radiahallahu Anhu) complained to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who said that it was a Jinn. Thus when he comes, tell him that Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said that he should not come back. The Jinn said, “Oh, Abu Ayoob leave me this time, by Allaah I will definitely never return. Thus Abu Ayoob left him and came to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and narrated the event. This event occurred twice. On the third occasion the Jinn said, “Shall I reveal to you such words, which when recited at night will prevent Shaitaan from coming near your house that night and day and the next day. Abu Ayoob said, “Sure”. The Jinn said,”Recite Ayatul Kursi”. This Sahabi came and related this event to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam), who said that he (the Jinn), has spoken the truth although he is (normally) a liar.

30) Hadhrat Abu Ayoob (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrates that he was in the front room of his home. Jinnaat used to take goods from there. He complained about this to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who said:”When you see him then take the name of Allaah and tell him to accept the call of Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). When the Jinn came, Abu Ayoob (Radiahallahu Anhu) told him this, and the Jinn pledged not to come again. Abu Ayoob left him. Abu Ayoob came to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who asked him how was his thief. Abu Ayoob replied, “I caught him but left him after he pledged that he will not return”. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) stated that he (the Jinn) will definitely return. Abu Ayoob apprehended the Jinn twice or thrice and each time he released him on the pledge of not returning. Abu Ayoob came to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who asked him about his prisoner. Abu Ayoob replied,” I caught him but released him on the pledge that he will not return. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) stated that he(the Jinn) will surely return. Abu Ayoob thereafter apprehended the Jinn who said ,”If you leave me, I will show such a thing, that when read, the Shaitaan will not come near you. That is Ayatul Kursi”. Abu Ayoob narrated this entire event to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who said,”The Jinn has spoken the truth although he is (normally) a great liar.

In the tradition of Tabrani it is stated “My dates were kept in a room.”. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said,”Tomorrow you will find a cat therein then it will become a wolf.” At the end of the tradition it is stated, “Satan said that whenever he hears it ( Ayatul Kursi) he will runaway. Via another chain of narrations it is stated in Tabrani. “I should have difficulty in my back,” and at the end of the tradition it is recorded “no Jinn or thief will come near”.

31. Hadhrat Abu Zar (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that he asked Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) which was the most (Arabic) (lofty, respectable) Ayat revealed to you? Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) replied, “Ayatul Kursi”.
Aid at the time difficulty and Angels Stipulated it for Protection

32) Hadhrat Abu Qatada (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrates that Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said.”Whoever reads Ayatul Kursi and the last Ayat of Surah Baqarah when in difficulty, then Allaah listens to that plea.”

Hadhrat Qatadah (Radiahallahu Anhu) says,”Whoever recites Ayatul Kursi on his sleeping bed, Allaah Ta’aala nominates 2 angels to protect him until morning.

A grateful heart, a remembering tongue, the reward of a martyr and the reward of a Siddique

33) Hadhrat Abu Musa Al Ashari (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrates that Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said that Allaah Ta’aala sent “Wahy”-(divine revelation) to Hadhrat Musa bin Imraan (Radiahallahu Anhu) to read Ayatul Kursi after every Fard Salaat and that whosoever recites Ayatul Kursi every Fard Salaat, will be granted the heart of the grateful, the tongue of those who remember, the rewards like the Ambiyaa and his actions will become like those of the Siddiques and on this practise the Nabi or Siddique is regular whose heart I have tested for Imaan and who has been chosen to be martyred in My Way.

34)Hadhrat Abu Amama (Radiahallahu Anhu) says he asked Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam),”Which is the most respectable, lofty Ayat, which has descended upon you”. He said, “Ayatul Kursi”.

Easy child-birth
35) Hadhrat Fatima Zahra (Radiahallahu Anha) narrates,”When the time approached for her delivery, then Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) ordered Hadhrat Umme Salama (Radiahallahu Anha) and Hadhrat Zainab (Radiahallahu Anha) to go to Fatima and recite Ayatul Kursi and “Inna Rabba Kumullaah” (the whole Ayat) and the last two Quls and blow on her.

Best Means of Protection
36) Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrates,”I cannot understand how a person, who is a Muslim, and owner of reason (intellect) can spend the night without reading Ayatul Kursi. If you knew the benefits of it, then you will never discard it under any condition”. Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) stated ,”I have been given Aayatul Kursi from the treasures under the Arsh of Allaah and it was not given to anyone before me”.
Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) says, “From the time I have heard this, I have never passed a night without reading it”.

37) Hadhrat Abu Huraira (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) made me the guardian of the Zakaat of Ramadaan. One thief began to steal from it. I caught him and told him that I am definitely going to take him to Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). He said,”Leave me, I am destitute and have a family”. I (Abu Huraira) left him. In the morning Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked , “What did your prisoner do last night.?” I (Abu Huraira) said, He spoke of his great need and family for which I felt pity on him and left him.” Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said,”He has spoken a lie and will definitely come again.” I (Abu harraira) understood that the (the thief) will definitely come again because Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said so. Thus I kept watch at that same barn. He (the thief) came and began stealing in handfuls. I caught him and threatened to take him to Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). The thief pleaded with me to leave him as he was needy and had a family and that he will not repeat this. I (Abu Huraiah) felt pity and left him. In the morning Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked him the same question as before and his answer was the same. When the same thing happened for the third time, Abu Hurairah said to the thief,”This is the third time. Each time you say that you will not steal again and each time you steal again.” The thief said,”Leave me, and I will teach you such words through which Allaah will benefit you.”. I (Abu Huraira) inquired about those words and the thief said,”When you go to your sleeping place, then recite Ayatul Kursi completely. Allaah will stipulate a guardian for you and Shaitaan will not come near you until the morning. I released him. In the morning Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) asked,”What did your thief do last night?” Abu Hurairah narrated what had transpired. The Sahabah were most enthusiastic to gain virtues. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said,”He has spoken the truth although he is a liar. Oh Abu Huraira, do you know with whom you were talking to for the past three nights.” I said “No”. Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said that it was Satan.

It is mentioned in Kitaabul Dalaalil from Hadhrat Buraidah (Radiahallahu Anhu) that he had wheat (crops). He said, “I sensed that there was a shortage in it. While sitting quietly in the night I saw a female Jinn sitting on the crops . I caught hold of her and said that I will not let her go until I had taken her to Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). She said that she had a family and swore on oath that she will not do so again. I released her. I came to Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and informed him about this. He said that she was a liar. When the same thing happened on the second night, she (the female jinn) asked me to release her. She said,”I will, in exchange teach you such a duaa that from amongst us none will ever come near your crops. When you retire to your sleeping place then read and blow Ayatul Kursi on your goods. I left her. When I informed Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) about this he said that she had spoken the truth although she was a liar.

38) Hadhrat Abu Huraia (Radiahallahu Anhu) said that Rasulallaah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) stated that whosoever reads “Haa meem al Mu’minoon” upto “al maseer” and Ayatul Kursi in the morning, will be protected until the evening and whoever reads both of these in the night will be protected until the morning.

39) Hadhrat Ibne Abbass (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrated that the Bani Israeel asked Musa(A.S.), “Does your Rabb sleep?” Musa(A.S.) said, “Fear Allaah”. Allaah ordered,” Oh Musa, your nation has asked you whether your Rabb sleeps? Take two glasses in your hand and stand with it for the whole night.” Hadhrat Musa (A.S) did as he was ordered. When on third of the night passed, he fell on his knees but stood up immediately. During the latter part of the night, sleep overcame him and the glasses fell and broke. Allaah Jala Shanahu said, “Oh Musa, if I sleep then the sky will fall on the earth and destroy it just as the two glasses fell from your hands and broke. ” Then Allaah Ta’aala revealed unto Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) Ayatul Kursi.

40) Fulfilling 70 needs and the Ayat which gives Jannat.
Hadhrat Ali (Radiahallahu Anhu) narrates that Surah Fatiha, Ayatul Kursi and two Ayats of Al Imraan (Shahidallaahu Anahu la…… Azzizul Hakeem) and (Qul Allahumma…bi Ghairi Hisaab) are linked to the arch of Allaah and between them and Allaah there are no veils. These Ayats said to Allaah “You are sending us unto earth and amongst those who become disobedient.” Allaah said,”By my Being, I say, that whoever of my servants reads you (addressing the Ayats) after every fard Salaat, I will make his resting place Jannat, irrespective of what action he may be involved in and will make him stay in “Blessed Peace” and view him with my hidden eye daily seventy times and fulfil seventy of his needs daily, amongst which the smallest is forgiveness and I will protect him from every enemy and assist him against the enemies”.

Hadhrat Abu Amama (Radiahallahu Anhu) says that there are eight bearers of the arsh, who read in a welcoming melodious voice. Four of them repeat the words:
Oh Allaah You are pure, and all praise is for You, although All Knowing, You are still affectionate and off-bearing.

And four of them read:

Oh Allaah You are Pure and all praises are for You. Although you have the Power (and Might), you do not apprehend.

Some important benefits of the respected Ayat
The respected Ayat comprises of many important benefits. Some are mentioned hereunder:

1. This is the most lofty Ayat of the Qur’aan Kareem.
2. That is the chief Ayat of the Qur’aan Kareem.
3. The reader of it is protected from the evil effects of the Jinnat from morning until evening and from evening until morning.
4. It is from the threshold of the arsh.
5. It is equal to a quarter of the Qur’aan Kareem.
6. Whoever recites it after the fard Salaat will be protected until the next Salaat and reciting it constantly was done by the Nabi, Siddique or Martyr and only death is the barrier between the reader and Jannat.
7. Blowing it upon food and drink brings blessings and abundance.
8. It is greater than the skies, earth, Jannat and Jahannam.
9. Whosoever reads it upon entering the home, Satan runs away from there.
10. The reciter, his children, home, wealth, property and the homes of his neighbours are safe.
11. Whosoever reads it together with the last Ayats of Surah Baqarah, Shaitaan does not enter his home for three days.
12. The Jinnaat cannot open any utensil upon which it is read.
13. In it is the Ism Azam.
14. The thief does not come near it’s reciter.
15. When recited with the last Ayat of Surah Baqarah then the plea of the reciter will not go unattended.
16. When reciting it whilst retiring to one’s sleeping place, one is protected until the morning. Two angels are deputed to protect him.
17. Whosoever recites it after every fard Salaat, will be rewarded with a grateful heart, a remembering tongue, the reward of being martyred in the path of Allaah, and will also be rewarded like the Siddiques.
18. Who reads it and “Inna Rabba bi kum Allaah..” and the last two Quls for a women on delivery, then the delivery becomes easy.
19. When one reads it and blows on his possessions and goods, then Shaitaan will not come near.
20. Whosoever reads Ayatul Kursi and the beginning of Surah Ghafir in the morning then he will be protected and be safe from the morning until the evening and vice versa. Subahaanallaah!

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70,000 angels in procession….

Sayyidina Ka’b al-Ahbar (radi Allahu ‘anhu) said:

Not a day goes by without seventy thousand angels descending upon the Rawdha of the Prophet ﷺ, surrounding him and sending salawat upon him until night falls. When they ascend another such group of angels take their place and do the same; until when the earth splits open before him ﷺ, he comes out with 70,000 angels in procession around him.

Recorded (with authentic chains to Ka’b) by Darimi (1:57 #94), Bayhaqi (Shu’ab, 3:492), Ibn Mubarak in Kitab az-Zuhd (1:558), Abu Nu’aym (Hilya, 5:390), Qadi Isma’il (Fadl as-Salat, #102)

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Indeed, Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet. O you who have believed, send your blessings on him, and salute him with all respect. (33:56)

اللهم صل على محمد وعلى آل محمد

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