Abū al-Faḍl ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr ibn Muḥammad Jalāl al-Dīn al-Khuḍayrī al-Suyūṭī (Arabic: جلال الدين عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد الخضيري السيوطي; c. 1445–1505 AD) was an Egyptian religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher, and one of the most prolific writers of the Middle Ages of Persian origin, whose works deal with Islamic theology. In 1486, he was appointed to a chair in the mosque of Baybars in Cairo. He adhered to the Shafi’i madhhab and is one of the latter-day authorities of the Shafi’i School, considered to be one of the Ashabun-Nazzar (Assessors) whose degree of ijtihad is agreed upon. An alternative spelling of his name is Jalaluddin.
Al-Suyuti was born on 3 October 1445 AD (1 Rajab 849 AH) in Cairo, Egypt. His mother was Circassian and his father was of Persian origin, while Al-Suyuti says that his ancestors came from Al-Khudayriyya in Baghdad. His family moved to Asyut in Mamluk Egypt, hence the nisba “Al-Suyuti”. Al-Suyuti’s father taught Shafi’i law at the Mosque and Khanqah of Shaykhu in Cairo, but died when Al-Suyuti was 5 or 6 years old.
Al-Suyuti studied various subjects, including: Shafi’i and Hanafi jurisprudence (fiqh), traditions (hadith), exegesis (tafsir), theology, history, rhetoric, philosophy, philology, arithmetic, timekeeping (miqat) and medicine. He started teaching Shafi’i jurisprudence at the age of 18, at the same mosque as his father did. In 1486, Sultan Qaitbay appointed Al-Suyuti shaykh at the Khanqah of Baybars II, a Sufi lodge. Al-Suyuti himself was a Sufi of the Shadhili order.
At one point, Al-Suyuti was named the mujaddid of the 9th century AH. He also claimed to have become a mujtahid (someone with the authority to personally interpret sources in order to give legal statements) in jurisprudence, hadith studies, and Arabic language. This caused friction with scholars and ruling officials, and after a quarrel over the finances of the Sufi lodge, he retreated to the island of Rawda in 1501. Al-Suyuti died on 18 October 1505.
Al-Suyuti wrote about diverse subjects in many works, over 700 according to the Dalil makhtutat al-Suyuti (“Directory of al-Suyuti’s manuscripts”), although numbers vary from over 500 to 981 according to a study from 1995. However, some of his works are just short pamphlets, including legal opinions.
The first book he wrote was Sharh Al-Isti’aadha wal-Basmalah in 866H, when he was seventeen years old.
Ibn Ímād writes: “Most of his works become world famous right in his lifetime. His ability to write was phenomenal. His student Dawudi says: “I was with the Shaykh Suyuti once, and he wrote three volumes on that day. He used to dictate annotations on ĥadīth, and answer my objections at the same time. He was the most knowledgeable scholar in his time of the ĥadīth and associated sciences, knowledge of the narrators including the uncommon ones, the text of the hadith matn, its chain of narrators isnad, the derivation of ruling from hadith. He has himself told me, that he had memorized One Hundred Thousand hadith.”
Al-Suyuti listed 283 of his own works in Ḥusn al-muḥaḍarah. In addition to the topic of religion, al-Suyuti wrote about medicine as well. Like the medicinal works of Abu’l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi, al-Suyuti’s book was almost exclusively based on Prophetic medicine rather than a synthesis of both Islamic and Greek medicine like the works of Al-Dhahabi. Al-Suyuti’s work focused primarily on diet and natural remedies for both serious ailments such as rabies and smallpox and simple conditions such as headaches and nosebleeds; he also touched on the topic of the cosmology behind the principles of medical ethics.
Some of his more famous works were:
Tafsir al-Jalalayn (Arabic: تفسير الجلالين, lit. ‘Commentary of the Two Jalals’); a Qur’anic exegesis written by Al-Suyuti and his teacher Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli
Al-Itqān fi ‘Ulum Al-Qur’an
Al-Tibb al Nabawi (Arabic: الطب النبوي, lit. ‘Prophetic medicine’)
Al-Jaami’ al-Kabir (Arabic: الجامع الكبير)
Al-Jaami’ al-Saghir (Arabic: الجامع الصغير)
Dur al-Manthur (Arabic: درالمنثور) in tafsir
Tadrib al-Rawi (Arabic: تدريب الراوي) both in hadith terminology
History of the Caliphs (Tarikh al-khulafa)The Khalifas who took the right way, a partial translation of the History of the Caliphs, covering the first four Rashidun caliphs and Hasan ibn Ali
Tabaqat al-huffaz, an appendix to al-Dhahabi’s Tadhkirat al-huffaz
Nuzhat al-julasāʼ fī ashʻār al-nisāʼ (Arabic: نزهة الجلساء في أشعار النساء), ‘an anthology of women’s verse’
Al-Khasais-ul-Kubra, which discusses the miracles of Islamic prophet Muhammad
Hazrat Imaam Jalaal-ud-deen Abul Fazl Abdur Rahmān as-Suyuti rahmatullāhi alaihi :
Ibn-ul-Kutoob (Son of books), Shaikh-ul-Islaam, Fakhr-ul-Mohaddeeṡeen.
Aap ki wilaadat 1 Rajab 849 Hijri (3 October 1445 A.D.) ko Sanichar ki shab ko Asyut (Misr) me hui.
Aap ke waalid ka naam Hazrat Shaikh Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad hai.
Aap ke waalid Cairo me Masjide Shaikhu me Shafi’i mazhab ke mudarris the.
Aap ki umr 5 saal thi tab Aap ke waalid ka inteqaal hua.
Is ke baad Hazrat Kamaal-ud-deen ibn Hamaam Hanafi ne Aap ki parwarish aur tarbiyat ki.
8 saal ki umr me Aap Haafize Qur’an hue.
Phir Aap ne Al-Umdatul Ahkaam, Minhaaj-ul-Fiqh wal-Usool, aur (Ibn Maalik Andaulisi ki) Alfiyyah fil Nahaw wa Sarf ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
864 Hijri me 15 saal ki umr me Aap ne majeed ta’aleem haasil karna shuru kiya.
866 Hijri (1461 A.D.) me 17 saal ki umr me Aap ne apni pehli kitaab ‘Sharh al-Isti’aazah wal-Bismillāh’ likhi.
Aap ne Hazrat Shaikh Shahaab-ud-deen Ash’shaar Masahi Shafi’i se ‘Al-Majmoo’ aur Ilmul-Faraa’iz ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
Hazrat Shaikh Siraaj-ud-deen al-Balqini se Fiq’h ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
Unho ne 876 Hijri me Sanad aur Ijaazat ata farmai.
878 Hijri me Shaikh Siraaj-ud-deen al-Balqini ke inteqaal ke baad Shaikh Sharf-ud-deen al-Munaawi se Fiq’h aur Tafseer ki ta’aleem haaisl ki.
Hazrat Jalaal-ud-deen al-Mahalli se Tafseer ki ta’alem haasil ki.
Hazrat Imaam Taqi-ud-deen al-Shamani Hanafi se 4 saal tak Ilme Nahaw aur Hadeeṡ ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
Aap ne 14 saal tak Hazrat Shaikh Mohiy-ud-deen al-Kaafiyaji se Tafseer, Usool-e-Tafseer, aur Ma’aani ki ta’aleem haasil ki aur Ijaazat haasil ki.
Hazrat Abdul Qaadir Ansaari se Usool-ul-Hadeeṡ ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
Hazrat Saif-ud-deen al-Hanafi se Tafseer aur Balaaghah (eloquence) ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
Hazrat Shams-ud-deen Mouhammad se Tasawwuf ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
Aap ke ustaado ki ta’adaad taqreeban 150 hai.
Aap Ilme Nahaw, Hadeeṡ, Fiq’h, Tafseer, Tawaarikh, Falasfa, Kalaam, Ilme Lisaani (Philology), Khitaabat (Rhetoric), Miqaat (Timekeeping), Ilme Hisaab (Arithmetic), Miraaṡ, aur Ilme Tibb ke maahir the.
866 Hijri me Aap Arabi ke mudarris bane.
867 Hijri me Masjide Shaikhu me Shafi’i mazhab ke mudarris bane.
Phir Aap Hajje Baitullāh ada kiya.
876 Hijri me Aap Mufti bane.
Phir Aap ne Madarsa Ibn Tuloon me Hadeeṡ ki tadrees shuru ki.
891 Hijri (1486 A.D.) me Sultaan Qaitbay ne Aap ko Khaanqaah-e-Baybar ke Shaikh aur Imaam muqarrar kiya tha.
Aap ko Shafi’i mazhab ke As’haab-un-Nazzar (Assessors) me se maana jaata hai.
Aap ke shaagirdo me Al-Daawūdi, Ibn Ilyaas aur Haafiz Ibn Tuloon al-Hanafi mash’hoor hain.
Aap ne Shaam, Hijaaz, Yemen, Hind aur Morocco aur Misr ke dusre shahero ka safar kiya.
Aur aakhir me Cairo (Misr) me sukoonat ikhtiyaar ki.
Aap 9wi sadi ke Mujaddid e Islaam hain.
Aap ne apni kitaabo aur ta’aleemaat ke zariye khidmate deen ka azeem kaam anjaam diya.
Aap Mujtahid the aur apne Fatawo ke zariye logo ko sahi ta’aleem dete the.
Aap ne taqreeban 283 kitaaben likhi hain.
Aap ki likhi hui mash’hoor kitaaben :
(1) Tafseer-ul-Jalalain (Commentary of the Two Jalaals), (Aap ke ustaad Hazrat Jalaal-ud-deen al-Mahalli ka Tafseer-e-Qur’an ka adhura kaam Aap ne mukammal kiya).
(2) Dur-ul-Manṡoor (Tafseer)
(3) Al-Itqaan fee Uloom ul Qur’an
(4) Al-Tibb-ul-Nabawi (Prophetic medicine)
(5) Al-Jaami’ ul-Kabeer
(6) Al-Jaami’ ul-Sagheer
(11) Nuzhat-ul-Julasaa fee ash’aar ul-Nisaa
(12) Al-Khasa’is-ul-Kubra (Miracles of Prophet Muhammad sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam)
(13) Al-Muzhir (Linguistics)
(14) Sharh al-Isti’aazah wal-Bismillāh
(16) Arful Wardi fee Akhbar Mahdi
Aap nek, parhezgaar, muttaqi aur tawakkal wa Qana’at waale the.
Agar koi ameer Aap ko koi tohfa deta to Aap use waapas de dete.
Afsaro ke saath ikhtelaaf aur takraav ki wajah se 907 Hijri (1501 A.D.) me Aap Jazeeratul Rawdah me chale gaye.
Aap aakhri umr tak kitaaben likhne ka aur ta’aleem wa tadrees ka kaam karte rahe.
Aakhir me 7 din tak beemaar rahe.
Aap Hazrat Imaam Kamaal-ud-deen rahmatullāhi alaihi ke mureed aur khalifa hain,
Aur Shaazili silsile ke Shaikh hain.
Aap ka wisaal 18 Jamaadi ul awwal 911 Hijri (17 October 1505 A.D.) ko Jumeraat ke roz hua.
Aap ka mazaar Cairo (Egypt) me hai.
ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Hazrat Imaam Jalaal-ud-deen Abdur Rahmān Suyuti rahmatullāhi alaihi aur tamaam Auliya Allāh ke waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.