Quran and Modern Science : LAYERS OF EARTH

12- It is God who created the seven heavens and of the
earth the same number. The commands flow among them
that you may know that God has power over everything
and everything is held within the knowledge of God.
65-Divorce, 12

The 12th verse of sura 65 mentions the seven heavens and as many
layers in the earth. We already saw that the seven layers of the heavens were in perfect harmony with each other, each performing its duty
impeccably. The 12th verse of the 65th sura establishes a similarity
between the heavens and the earth.
Our earth is also stratified as the heavens are, and our life on earth
depends on these layers. In the Arabic community of the Prophet’s
time, the surface of the earth was an expanse full of mystery. The
knowledge prevalent at the time did not permit man to have an
inkling of the stratigraphy. The fact that the statement in the Quran
of the atmospheric layers is almost a replica of this stratification of the
earth is another miracle.


As I have already pointed out in previous chapters, the Quran’s statements are not meant to be miracles as such. But the fact that these
statements reflect at the same time actualities beyond the grasp of the
scientific lore of the Prophet’s time points to announcements of
miraculous dimensions. Our aim is not only to establish truths expressed therein, but rather to meditate upon the wonderful designs
of Allah. Thanks to the matter forming the substance of the core that
is one of the layers of our sphere, a magnetic field is produced around
our world, making life on earth possible. Had the dynamo in the centre of the earth been a little bit weaker, the magnetic field around the
earth known as the Van Allen belts (belts of intense radiation in space
about the earth formed by high-energy charged particles which are
trapped by the geomagnetic field) would fail to form an obstacle sufficient enough to stop the lethal radiation threatening our world. The
harmony in the concentration of such substances as nickel and iron in
liquid form within the core of the earth renders possible the function
of the Van Allen belts. All these minutely calculated designs are created in perfect order by our Creator in preparation for man’s emergence
upon the earth.
It took our earth billions of years to cool (it is estimated that the
earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago). Despite this fact, the core
of the earth contains lava, the temperature of which is extremely high.
The proportion of the upper crust of the earth, of the soil – on which
we live – to the world, may be likened to the ratio of the peel of an
apple to its mass. The proportion of the crust of the earth to the diameter of the world is less than 1%. We are far from being conscious of
this fact as we read our book, go on a walk, eat and talk. The terrific
phenomena occurring in the core of our earth have little unwanted
effect on our condition upon the earth where we continue to live as if
by the side of a calm lake. These occurrences we qualify as terrific
because the high temperatures and magnetic phenomena are in actual fact necessary for our survival. Our existence depends on these phenomena without being adversely effected. The phenomena in question are far from fortuitous and beyond our control. God is the
Author of all these correlated phenomena. It is incumbent upon us to
give thanks to our Creator in full consciousness of our human frailty
for all the beauties and perfection we are witnessing.


The earth is made of many different and distinct layers. The deeper
layers are composed of heavier metals; they are hotter, denser and
under much greater pressure than the outer limits. One of the layers is the Oceanic Crust (1), and another one is the Continental Crust
(2). Beneath is the Upper Mantle (3). Another layer is the
Asthenosphere (4) that exhibits plastic properties. Beneath is the
Lower Mantle (5). The Outer Core (6) is underneath; its liquid content with the dynamo effect generated by the rotating of the earth
forms the protective magnetic field around it. And the last layer is the
Inner Core (7).
We see that our world is made of layers whose raw material and
function vary. The figure 7 is again indicated in the Quran for the layers of the earth. A detailed examination
of ALLAH wonderful world shows that ALLAH has power over all things
and that ALLAH comprehends all things in His knowledge, as it is said in
the verse which we examined in this topic.

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