MIGRATION OF SAYYIDINA IBRAHIM TO SYRIA, ENTRY INTO EGYPT AND STAY IN THE SACRED TERRITORY
In Surah Al-Anbiya too Allah tells us that He rescued him and Luts and they went to a blessed land. He tell us that He wanted him Ishaq and Ya’qub whom he guided them to righteousness and made them leaders of people. (verses 71-73).
When he left his people for the sake of Allah, he had with him his wife who was barren and they had no child, and Lut, the son of his brother Haran. After that Allah granted him pious children and gave prophethood and the Book to his offspring. In fact, every Prophet that came after him was from his offspring and every Book that was revealed to a Prophet after him was on one of his descendants. This was a robe of honqur, from Allah for him. He left his country, family and relatives and migrated to another land so that he could worship his Lord and invite people to Him. And, Allah said about the land to which he migrated, Syria,This was what Abu bin Ka’b and Abu Al-Aaliyah and Qatadah But, Ibn Abbas teritor has asked, “Have you not heard Allah’s words,Surely the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah, a place blessed, and a guidance for the peoples) of the worlds.
From the time she had gone to the king, Sayyidina Ibrahim stood up in prayer before Allah, the Majestic, and he beseeched Him to protect her from the evil man and to return his mischief to him with punishment. She too behaved in like manner for when the enemy of Allah intended to approach her, she performed ablution and stood up in prayer and supplicated Allah with the supplication.
Then Sayyidina Ibrahim AlahisSalam returned to the sacred land he had been in before. He had with him cattle, slaves and property. He had also Hajarah with him. Then Lut stil emigrated with his possessions on the instructions of Sayyidina Ibrahim to Sadum (Sodom) a chief city of the area in that era. Its inhabitants were evildoers, disbelievers and immoral people. Allah had revealed to Sayyidina Ibrahim te His command that he should spread His message to Egypt and to all sides around him and had informed him that these territories were to be under him and his offspring upto the end of the time. He promised him that He would multiply his children until they were as many as particles of dust of the earth.
It is said that a group of tyrants oppressed Sayyidina Lut and took him captive. They appropriated his property and possessions and drove away his cattle. When Sayyidina Ibrahim to learnt of it, he rushed there with three hundred and eighteen men. He got Sayyidina Lut still released and his property and wealth returned to him. Many of the enemies of Allah and His Messengers were killed. He defeated them and expelled them from there to northern Damascus. The prestige of Sayyidina Ibrahim tan thus rose high. He then returned to his country, victorious. The kings of the land of Bayt-al-Maqdis, met him and respected him highly and feared him. He then stayed in his land. May blessings of Allah and His peace be on him.
THE BIRTH OF ISMA’IL AlaihisSalam TO HAJARAH AlaihisSalam
According to the People of the Book, Sayyidina Ibrahim AlahisSalam prayed to Allah to grant him righteous children and Allah gave him tidings of that.
Soon, Hajarah AlaihisSalam gave birth to Isma’il AlahisSalam and the age of Sayyidina Ibrahim then was eighty six years. Ishaq AlaihisSalam was born thirteen years later. When Isma’il AlahisSalam was born, Allah gave Sayyidina Ibrahim AlahisSalam the tidings of Ishaq AlahisSalam from Sarah and he fell down in prostration to his Allah. Allah let him know that he (Isma’il) will have many offspring and their numbers would increase and he would father twelve great men.
THE MIGRATION OF SAYYIDINA IBRAHIM WITH HIS SON ISMA’IL AND HIS MOTHER HAJARAH TO THE MOUNT FARAN IN MAKKAH-THEIR RAISING THE HOUSE OF ALLAH
Bukhari has narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas:
The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Isma’il. She used it that she might conceal her tracks from Sarah.° Sayyidina Ibrahim brought her and her son Sayyidina Isma’il AlaihisSalam while she used to nurse him at her breast to a place near the Ka’bah, under a tree on the spot of Zam Zam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody at Makkah nor was there any water. So he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates, and a small water-skin containing some water. He then turned homeward. Isma’il’s mother followed him saying, “O Ibrahim! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, and nothing…?’ She repeated this question to him many times but he did not look back at her. Then she asked him, ‘Has Allah commanded you to do so?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ She said, ‘Then He will not neglect us’ and returned while Ibrahim proceeded onwards until he reached Thaniyah.
Our Lord! Surely I have made some of my progeny to dwell in a valley uncultivable near Your sacred House, Our Lord! That they may establish Salah, so make the hearts of some of mankind to yearn towards them, and provide them with fruits that they may give thanks. (Ibrahim, 14:37)
Isma’il’s mother suckled Isma’il and drank from the water she had. When the water in the water-skin was exhausted she became thirsty and her child
She tied a girdle round her waist and ran away dragging her robe behind her to wipe out her tracks.
became thirsty. She gazed at him while he tossed in agony. She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of Al-Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She stood on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody. Then she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed the valley and reached Al-Marwa Mountain. Here she stood and looked about expecting to see somebody but she could not see anybody. She repeated that (running between As-Safa and Al-Marwa) seven times.”
Ibn Abbas said, “The Prophet ﷺsaid, “This is the source of Sa’i (walking) between As-Safa and Al-Marwa.”
When she reached al-Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said, ‘O! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?’ And behold! She saw an angel at the place of Zamzam, digging the earth with its heel till water flowed from the place. She tried to make something like a basin around it, using her hands in this way and started filling her water-skin with water with her hands but the water was flowing out even after she had scooped some of it.”
Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet ﷺ said, “May Allah show mercy to the mother of Isma’ il! Had she let zamzam flow (without trying to control it), it would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth.”
Then he added, “She drank and suckled her child. The angel assured her, ‘Do not be afraid. You will not be neglected for this is the House of Allah which this boy and his father will build Allah never neglects His people.’
The House, then, was on a high place like a hillock, and when torrents came they flowed on its right and left. She lived in that way until some people from the tribe of Jurhum passed by and they were coming from the Kada’. They landed in the lower part of Makkah where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. They sent one or two of them to investigate and they returned to report their discovery of water. All of them came to it and found Isma’il’s mother there. They asked her, ‘Do you allow us to stay here?’ ‘Yes, but have no right to possess the water.’ They agreed to that.”
Abdullah Ibn Abbas said that the Prophetﷺ said, “Isma’il’s mother was pleased with that because she enjoyed the company of people. They settled there and called for their families and some of them became permanent residents there. Isma’il grew up and learnt Arabic from them and caused them to love and admire him as he grew up. When he was old enough, they married him to a woman amongst them. After Ismail’s mother had died. İbrahim came to see his family whom he had left behind but he did not find Isma’il there. He asked Isma’il’s wife about him and she said that he had gone to search for their livelihood. Then he asked her about their condition and she complained, ‘We are living in misery, hardship and destitution. He said, ‘When he returns convey my salutations to him and tell him to change the threshold of the gate (of his house).’ When Isma’il returned, he felt something familiar and asked his wife, ‘Has anyone been here?’ ‘Yes, an old man-such-and-such and he asked about you and enquired about our condition and I told him that we were in hardship and poverty.’ Isma’il asked. ‘Did he give any advice.’ ‘Yes, He asked me to convey his salutation to you and to ask you to change the threshold of your gate.’ Isma’il said to her, ‘He was my father and he has asked me to divorce you. Go back to your family.’ He divorced her and married another woman.
Ibrahim stayed away as long as Allah wished and visited them again but did not find Isma’il. He asked Isma’il’s wife about him and she said that he had gone in search of livelihood. He asked her about how they were getting on and she said that they were well-off and thanked Allah for that. He asked her, ‘What kind of food you eat.’ ‘Meat,’ she said, ‘And what do you drink.’ She replied ‘Water! He prayed for them.
The Prophetﷺ said, ‘At that time they did not have grain and if they had, he would have invoked Allah’s blessing on grain too.’ He added, “If somebody has only these two things as his sustenance, his health and disposition will be affected badly unless he lives in Makkah.’
He then said, ‘Then Ibrahim said to Isma’il’s wife, ‘Give my regards to your husband and tell him that he should keep firm the threshold of his gate.’
When Isma’il came home he asked her if anybody had come there and she confirmed that a good-looking old man had come and asked about him and about how they lived. She informed him that she had told the man that they lived happily. ‘Did he give you any advice?’ ‘Yes. He asked me to give his regards to you and ordered that you
should keep firm the threshold of your gate.
Isma’il said, ‘He was my father. You are the threshold of (the gate). He has ordered me to keep you with me.’
Ibrahim stayed away from them as long as Allah wished. He visited them afterwards and found Isma’il under a tree near Zam Zam sharpening his arrows. When he saw Ibrahim, he rose up to welcome him and they greeted each other as father and son
or, son and father would greet each other. He said, ‘O Isma’il, Allah has given me a command!’
‘Do what your Lord has commanded you to do.’ ‘Will you help me? ‘Yes, I will help you! Ibrahim told him that Allah had commanded him to build a House there and he pointed out to a place higher than the land surrounding it.
Then they raised its foundation. Isma’il brought stones and Ibrahim laid the bricks raising the structure. When the walls became high, Isma’il brought this stone and put it for Ibrahim who stood on it and carried on the task Isma’il kept delivering the bricks to him and they both said:
Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Surely You are All-hearing, All-Knowing!
(Al-Baqarah, 2:127) The Prophet added, “Then both of them went on building and going round the Ka’bah, saying,
That is, the same supplication.
THE STORY OF THE ZABEEH
Allah has said in Surah As-Saffat, that when Ibrahim that migrated from the land of his people, he supplicated Allah to grant him a righteous son. Allah gave him the glad tidings of a righteous son, Isma’il stede. He was his first child and his age then was eighty six years.
In this Surah, Allah has informed (When he had reached the age of running with him (As-Saffat, 37:102) that is, was capable of helping him in his affairs, Sayyidina Ibrahim set it as was commanded in his dream that he offer him in sacrifice.
This was a command from Allah for His Khalil. It was a severely trying time. This was his only son. They had received him at an old age. He had been commanded earlier to leave him and his mother in a barren land but he had obeyed Allah unhesitatingly. There was nothing of grass and food or company in that land but Allah had taken care of them.
O my father, do as you are commanded, if Allah will, you will find me one of the persevering (As-Saffat, 37:102)
Obviously, this is an expression of deep obedience and submission to the father and to the Lord of men.(As Saffat, 37:103). They both bowed in submission to the command of Allah and he was laid face down that he may not observe the preparations. This is what Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Sa’eed bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Dahhak have said. It is also said that he was laid down as any animal is laid down. Sayyidina Ibrahim glorified Allah after beginning in His Name and Isma’il sentiel recited the shahadah
Allah replaced his son with what pleased Him and it is well known that it was a white, big-eyed sheep with horns.
Many Isra’ilite fabrications are found about this event but it is clear from the Qur’an that it was a great sacrifice ransomed and the Hadith tell us that the replacement was a sheep.
Imam Ahmad has reported from Safiyah bint Shaybah who had been informed by a woman of Banu Salim that the Messenger of Allahﷺ summoned Uthman bin Talhah. The women said that she asked Uthman, “Why did the Messenger of Allah ﷺ summon you!” He said, “The Messenger of Allah ﷺsaid to me, I had seen two horns of a sheep when I entered the House, but I forgot to ask you to conceal them.’ So, I concealed them lest there be anything in the house that would distract the worshiper.” (Ahmad, # 68,380)
This is evidence that Isma’il was the one offered for sacrifice because he was the one who resided at Makkah and we do not know of Ishaq having gone to Makkah in his childhood. But Allah knows best.