Quran and Modern Science :ATOM AND SUBATOMIC PARTICLES

3- Not even an atom’s weight in the heavens and the earth,
or something smaller or greater than it is hidden from
Him, but all are in a clear record.
34-Sheba, 3

The atom is the smallest particle of matter. Allah drew attention to the
existence of the atom, laying emphasis on the importance of its knowledge. A naked eye looking at a table, a carpet, a wall or a stone cannot
fully grasp the importance of the atom and the knowledge it contains.
While the Quran stresses the importance of the atom, it emphasizes also
the subatomic particles, “Or something smaller or greater than.” In
the expression “greater than” is comprised the knowledge of the greater
compositions like molecules, the entirety of which is within God’s ken.
. The Quran asserts the omniscience of
Allah. Drawing attention to the existence of the atom and the subatomic particles is relevant to the present day information that physics has discovered. The knowledge obtained today by means of cosmological
physics studying the science of the origin and structure of the universe
are interrelated with the data of atomic physics. Another miraculous sign
of the Quran is its referring to the weight (miskale in Arabic) of the atom
wherever the word “zerre” (atom) is mentioned.

FROM VAST TO SMALLEST MAGNITUDES

Imagine you are eating a pizza with great relish. What are its ingredients? Sausage, cheese, mushrooms, tomatoes and flour. What are the
constituents of these sausages, cheeses, mushrooms and tomatoes and
what are the constituents of the constituents? This series of questions
leads us to molecules. The molecules themselves are made up of atoms
such as oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. Then come protons and electrons, together forming eventually the nucleus of the atom…
The entire universe is made of matter or energy. From the trunk of a
tree to its leaves, from the hands of a human being to his eyes, from golden ornaments to cotton dresses, everything is matter. The atom is the
individual structure that constitutes the basic unit of any chemical element. The proton is an elementary particle that is the positively charged
constituent of ordinary matter, and, like the neutron, is the building stone
of atomic nuclei. The electron is an elementary particle that is the negatively charged constituent of ordinary matter. These are the recent discoveries of science that led us to the discovery of the television, computer, Internet, etc. Take, for instance, a grain of sand in the palm, which is
assumed to be the simplest matter, and think of the quadrillion of atoms
it contains; quadrillions of atoms you could not finish counting throughout the span of your lifetime. Imagine that each of these atoms has its
electrons moving around the nuclei, like the planets making their rounds
around the sun. A quadrillion solar systems contained within a grain of
sand or piece of rock in your palm. An intelligent mind will readily conceive that there is nothing simple in the universe. Be it a pizza or a rock,
suppose that you fancy recomposing them. To embark on such a huge
project, you must go back to the very beginning, to the primeval explosion, and repeat the process. In this odyssey, you will run into atoms, cornerstones of the universe, entailing the existence of protons, electrons and
neutrons; then you will be faced by the gaseous substance made of hydrogen and helium; these will be followed by stars and atoms produced in
these stars which will one day be transformed into the mushrooms, cheese
and tomatoes of our pizza. In order to really make a pizza, we need to
create the entire universe with all the stages it had.
The more you delve into the study of the atom the greater
becomes your wonder. Suppose a penny on the table is the nucleus of
an atom. The orbit that the electron would trace around it would be
at a distance of 2-3 km. What is in between? The distance between the two, i.e., the nucleus and the electrons, is a vacuum. In other words,
a piece of rock held in our hand contains in it quadrillions of solar systems, but 99.99% of it is a vacuum. Interesting, isn’t it?
While we observed the fact that the universe was replete with orbits
as described in the verse (51-The Dispersing, 7), we witnessed the
infinitude of Allah power and magnitude. This divine power is demonstrated through more than one hundred million galaxies, more than a
hundred million stars contained in each, countless planets and satellites
and their quadrillions of devised orbits. A grain of sand, then, contains
quadrillions of miniature replicas of the solar system where electrons
dance around the nuclei of quadrillions of atoms. What should one
deduce from this? To begin with, the incommensurable magnitude of
our Creator’s power is also observed in the depth of matter. Endless
vastness has been created from these particles. The motion of the atom
is the same movement around the canter of limitless magnitudes. The
system in any given galaxy and the one forming a particle of dust is the
same system. The Author of that speck of dust is also the Author of the
universe. All these phenomena point to the immensity of His power and
to the order reigning in the universe, as well as to the fact that nothing
is casual in His creation. The creation of the smallest and of the biggest
is equal for Him. The creation of a point containing trillions of atoms
and of immense space is equal for Him and difficulty is a notion not
applicable for Him. There is no limit to His wisdom and power.

27- And if all the trees on earth were made into pens, and
the ocean supplied the ink, augmented by seven more
oceans, the words of God would not run out. God is indeed
Almighty and Wise.
31-Luqmaan, 27

INFINITESIMAL CONTENTS OF ATOMS


The nucleus of the atom contains protons charged with positive electricity. These positive charges repel each other. The miracle of creation occurs when protons adhere to each other forming a single
point. The power that confines the protons repelling each other and
the neutrons within a single point is immense; it is called strong
nuclear force. The elementary particles containing this force are referred to with the French epithet “gluons” meaning “sticky” (The
immense destructive energy of the atomic bomb was obtained by the
use of this force). God, who devised everything in the universe with
mathematical precision, has also conceived this immense force with
mathematical exactitude. This force adheres the mutually repelling
protons to each other; had the power been weaker or stronger, the
protons could disintegrate or it could cause the intrusion of protons
and neutrons into each other.
The atomic bomb demonstrated tragically the immense power of
the atom. It also showed that one of the factors that contributed to
our worldly existence is its intrinsic balance. Thanks to the well adjusted order reigning in this field, matter does not disintegrate all
of a sudden, giving rise to noxious effects of radiation. Another
important factor that contributes to the stability of the atom is the
weak force inherent in it. This force is particularly important in establishing the balance of the nuclei that comprise an excessive number of
neutrons and protons.
Electromagnetic force is another factor contributing to the existence of atom. It is this force that brings about the attraction of oppositely charged particles and the repulsion of particles having like electric charges. This has made possible the coming together of the protons and electrons. However, this coming together has its limits.
Electrons do not stick to the protons while they move at a breath-taking speed around the nucleus in their orbits. The repulsion of negatively charged electrons turning in succession, and the attraction of
the electrons by the protons changes nothing. In this way, the electron does not stick to the proton that attracts it, nor is it moved away.
The Creator of this system, of these electrons, deprived of consciousness, is undoubtedly the Creator of matter, atoms, electrons, etc. Let
us make an experiment as conscious human beings. Imagine tying a
rope around the waists of three or four people while others stand in
the middle of the circle. Let those in the middle try to pull the tied
people towards themselves while the outside people are circumnavigating the centre, and let the people making the circle push each other
and those in the canter as well, resembling the movement within the
nucleus of an atom. We certainly do not expect them to make thousands of rotations per second like an electron. Can reasonable human
beings continue to imitate the motion of an atom for the length of
one minute? And imagine for an instant that we venture to imitate the model of an atom with 3 or 4 orbits and that there are three or four
rotations around the symbolic nucleus. In addition to this, suppose
that sumo wrestlers representing the gluons with adhesive properties
within the nucleus try to keep those pulling the rope while pushing
each other at their places. What an awkward experience this would be!
How have the protons and electrons been performing this feast over
and over again endlessly for eons and eons with the quadrillions of
atoms contained in a small rock?
These atoms existing in the universe and in our bodies were produced long ago in supernovas. The calcium in our teeth, the carbon
that our pizza contains, and the iron atoms in our body are products
of stars of high temperatures. These raw materials of the universe are
prepared in the laboratory of these stars before being transformed into
pizzas, water, blood, flesh, teeth and eyes.
This is not a story of an adventure taking place far away from us.
Our hands, hair, eyes, our very food and the chair we sit on, everything is performing this process indiscriminately. Our Creator is perpetuating this process incessantly with His omnipotence and omniscience. All these movements of the atom and the energy inherent in it
are what perpetuate our existence.

2- To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the
earth. No son has He begotten, nor has He a partner in His
dominion. It is He who created all things, and ordered
them in exact measure.
25- Al-Furqan The Distinguisher, 2

WHAT ELSE?


It is estimated that there are some 1080 particles in the universe. Add
80 zeros after 1 to have an idea of this magnitude. These particles
function thanks to complex, ingeniously devised and balanced forces.
So do the comets, supernovas and planets, a consequence of the harmonious interaction of these particles. What else must one bring forth
to give an idea of the power and design lying behind all these?
In this chapter, I tried to outline the structure of an atom and
emphasize that it was extremely complex, perfect and ingeniously
devised. Were we to push our exploration further, our wonder would be much greater. The emergence of elementary particles in the wake
of the Big Bang is the result of an intelligent design. The heat at every
instant during the explosion, the number of atomic particles, the
forces involved in every stage and their intensities have been carefully
planned. Any change in these values would be the end of existence, of
galaxies and atoms, and would end up in chaos. The consequence of
this primeval explosion was not chaos as might be expected, but a perfect harmony, the work of the Creator, governed by physical laws, a
perfect order reigning among galaxies and atoms.
Tiny units of split seconds had their function to perform in the creation of the universe. Had the particles and anti-particles been created in equal number, all of them would be destroyed when the temperature fell below one billion degrees, leaving behind nothing but
radiation. The very fact of our existence is evidence to the contrary.
The number of electrons had to be somewhat more than the number
of positrons and the number of protons should exceed the number of
anti-protons and the figure representing the neutrons should be superior to the number of anti-neutrons.
Every particle had to come into being at a predetermined velocity,
temperature and time sequence. The primeval explosion was designed
in such a way that it was followed by an evolution that reflected the
Creator’s ingenious artistry. We have touched on the structure of the
atom and the formation of atomic particles after the primeval explosion. The more one delves into the mystery of creation the more one’s
wonder and amazement increase. The actual magnificence of the
atom, the creation of particles of the atom by an intelligent design and
the transformation of the particles into atoms are beyond the grasp of
the intellect. If 1080 particles, with mutually attracting and repulsing
electricity charges, had not been transformed into atoms in a finely
balanced manner, neither the human ego, nor the book we read, nor
the earth we inhabit would exist.
Whether we ascend to the heavens or descend to the microscopic
depths, we encounter the same perfection and immensity of Allah
work and design.

120- To God do belong the dominion of the heavens and
the earth, and all that there is therein, and it is He who has
power over all things.
5-Al-Maidah The Feast, 120

SAYYIDINA IBRAHIM AL-KHALIL AlahisSalam part 2

MIGRATION OF SAYYIDINA IBRAHIM TO SYRIA, ENTRY INTO EGYPT AND STAY IN THE SACRED TERRITORY

In Surah Al-Anbiya too Allah tells us that He rescued him and Luts and they went to a blessed land. He tell us that He wanted him Ishaq and Ya’qub whom he guided them to righteousness and made them leaders of people. (verses 71-73).

When he left his people for the sake of Allah, he had with him his wife who was barren and they had no child, and Lut, the son of his brother Haran. After that Allah granted him pious children and gave prophethood and the Book to his offspring. In fact, every Prophet that came after him was from his offspring and every Book that was revealed to a Prophet after him was on one of his descendants. This was a robe of honqur, from Allah for him. He left his country, family and relatives and migrated to another land so that he could worship his Lord and invite people to Him. And, Allah said about the land to which he migrated, Syria,This was what Abu bin Ka’b and Abu Al-Aaliyah and Qatadah But, Ibn Abbas teritor has asked, “Have you not heard Allah’s words,Surely the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah, a place blessed, and a guidance for the peoples) of the worlds.

From the time she had gone to the king, Sayyidina Ibrahim stood up in prayer before Allah, the Majestic, and he beseeched Him to protect her from the evil man and to return his mischief to him with punishment. She too behaved in like manner for when the enemy of Allah intended to approach her, she performed ablution and stood up in prayer and supplicated Allah with the supplication.

Then Sayyidina Ibrahim AlahisSalam returned to the sacred land he had been in before. He had with him cattle, slaves and property. He had also Hajarah with him. Then Lut stil emigrated with his possessions on the instructions of Sayyidina Ibrahim to Sadum (Sodom) a chief city of the area in that era. Its inhabitants were evildoers, disbelievers and immoral people. Allah had revealed to Sayyidina Ibrahim te His command that he should spread His message to Egypt and to all sides around him and had informed him that these territories were to be under him and his offspring upto the end of the time. He promised him that He would multiply his children until they were as many as particles of dust of the earth.

It is said that a group of tyrants oppressed Sayyidina Lut and took him captive. They appropriated his property and possessions and drove away his cattle. When Sayyidina Ibrahim to learnt of it, he rushed there with three hundred and eighteen men. He got Sayyidina Lut still released and his property and wealth returned to him. Many of the enemies of Allah and His Messengers were killed. He defeated them and expelled them from there to northern Damascus. The prestige of Sayyidina Ibrahim tan thus rose high. He then returned to his country, victorious. The kings of the land of Bayt-al-Maqdis, met him and respected him highly and feared him. He then stayed in his land. May blessings of Allah and His peace be on him.

THE BIRTH OF ISMA’IL AlaihisSalam TO HAJARAH AlaihisSalam

According to the People of the Book, Sayyidina Ibrahim AlahisSalam prayed to Allah to grant him righteous children and Allah gave him tidings of that.

Soon, Hajarah AlaihisSalam gave birth to Isma’il AlahisSalam and the age of Sayyidina Ibrahim then was eighty six years. Ishaq AlaihisSalam was born thirteen years later. When Isma’il AlahisSalam was born, Allah gave Sayyidina Ibrahim AlahisSalam the tidings of Ishaq AlahisSalam from Sarah and he fell down in prostration to his Allah. Allah let him know that he (Isma’il) will have many offspring and their numbers would increase and he would father twelve great men.

THE MIGRATION OF SAYYIDINA IBRAHIM WITH HIS SON ISMA’IL AND HIS MOTHER HAJARAH TO THE MOUNT FARAN IN MAKKAH-THEIR RAISING THE HOUSE OF ALLAH

Bukhari has narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas:

The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Isma’il. She used it that she might conceal her tracks from Sarah.° Sayyidina Ibrahim brought her and her son Sayyidina Isma’il AlaihisSalam while she used to nurse him at her breast to a place near the Ka’bah, under a tree on the spot of Zam Zam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody at Makkah nor was there any water. So he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates, and a small water-skin containing some water. He then turned homeward. Isma’il’s mother followed him saying, “O Ibrahim! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, and nothing…?’ She repeated this question to him many times but he did not look back at her. Then she asked him, ‘Has Allah commanded you to do so?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ She said, ‘Then He will not neglect us’ and returned while Ibrahim proceeded onwards until he reached Thaniyah.

Our Lord! Surely I have made some of my progeny to dwell in a valley uncultivable near Your sacred House, Our Lord! That they may establish Salah, so make the hearts of some of mankind to yearn towards them, and provide them with fruits that they may give thanks. (Ibrahim, 14:37)

Isma’il’s mother suckled Isma’il and drank from the water she had. When the water in the water-skin was exhausted she became thirsty and her child

She tied a girdle round her waist and ran away dragging her robe behind her to wipe out her tracks.

became thirsty. She gazed at him while he tossed in agony. She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of Al-Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She stood on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody. Then she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed the valley and reached Al-Marwa Mountain. Here she stood and looked about expecting to see somebody but she could not see anybody. She repeated that (running between As-Safa and Al-Marwa) seven times.”

Ibn Abbas said, “The Prophet ﷺsaid, “This is the source of Sa’i (walking) between As-Safa and Al-Marwa.”

When she reached al-Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said, ‘O! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?’ And behold! She saw an angel at the place of Zamzam, digging the earth with its heel till water flowed from the place. She tried to make something like a basin around it, using her hands in this way and started filling her water-skin with water with her hands but the water was flowing out even after she had scooped some of it.”

Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet ﷺ said, “May Allah show mercy to the mother of Isma’ il! Had she let zamzam flow (without trying to control it), it would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth.”

Then he added, “She drank and suckled her child. The angel assured her, ‘Do not be afraid. You will not be neglected for this is the House of Allah which this boy and his father will build Allah never neglects His people.’

The House, then, was on a high place like a hillock, and when torrents came they flowed on its right and left. She lived in that way until some people from the tribe of Jurhum passed by and they were coming from the Kada’. They landed in the lower part of Makkah where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. They sent one or two of them to investigate and they returned to report their discovery of water. All of them came to it and found Isma’il’s mother there. They asked her, ‘Do you allow us to stay here?’ ‘Yes, but have no right to possess the water.’ They agreed to that.”

Abdullah Ibn Abbas said that the Prophetﷺ said, “Isma’il’s mother was pleased with that because she enjoyed the company of people. They settled there and called for their families and some of them became permanent residents there. Isma’il grew up and learnt Arabic from them and caused them to love and admire him as he grew up. When he was old enough, they married him to a woman amongst them. After Ismail’s mother had died. İbrahim came to see his family whom he had left behind but he did not find Isma’il there. He asked Isma’il’s wife about him and she said that he had gone to search for their livelihood. Then he asked her about their condition and she complained, ‘We are living in misery, hardship and destitution. He said, ‘When he returns convey my salutations to him and tell him to change the threshold of the gate (of his house).’ When Isma’il returned, he felt something familiar and asked his wife, ‘Has anyone been here?’ ‘Yes, an old man-such-and-such and he asked about you and enquired about our condition and I told him that we were in hardship and poverty.’ Isma’il asked. ‘Did he give any advice.’ ‘Yes, He asked me to convey his salutation to you and to ask you to change the threshold of your gate.’ Isma’il said to her, ‘He was my father and he has asked me to divorce you. Go back to your family.’ He divorced her and married another woman.

Ibrahim stayed away as long as Allah wished and visited them again but did not find Isma’il. He asked Isma’il’s wife about him and she said that he had gone in search of livelihood. He asked her about how they were getting on and she said that they were well-off and thanked Allah for that. He asked her, ‘What kind of food you eat.’ ‘Meat,’ she said, ‘And what do you drink.’ She replied ‘Water! He prayed for them.

The Prophetﷺ said, ‘At that time they did not have grain and if they had, he would have invoked Allah’s blessing on grain too.’ He added, “If somebody has only these two things as his sustenance, his health and disposition will be affected badly unless he lives in Makkah.’

He then said, ‘Then Ibrahim said to Isma’il’s wife, ‘Give my regards to your husband and tell him that he should keep firm the threshold of his gate.’

When Isma’il came home he asked her if anybody had come there and she confirmed that a good-looking old man had come and asked about him and about how they lived. She informed him that she had told the man that they lived happily. ‘Did he give you any advice?’ ‘Yes. He asked me to give his regards to you and ordered that you

should keep firm the threshold of your gate.

Isma’il said, ‘He was my father. You are the threshold of (the gate). He has ordered me to keep you with me.’

Ibrahim stayed away from them as long as Allah wished. He visited them afterwards and found Isma’il under a tree near Zam Zam sharpening his arrows. When he saw Ibrahim, he rose up to welcome him and they greeted each other as father and son

or, son and father would greet each other. He said, ‘O Isma’il, Allah has given me a command!’

‘Do what your Lord has commanded you to do.’ ‘Will you help me? ‘Yes, I will help you! Ibrahim told him that Allah had commanded him to build a House there and he pointed out to a place higher than the land surrounding it.

Then they raised its foundation. Isma’il brought stones and Ibrahim laid the bricks raising the structure. When the walls became high, Isma’il brought this stone and put it for Ibrahim who stood on it and carried on the task Isma’il kept delivering the bricks to him and they both said:

Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Surely You are All-hearing, All-Knowing!

(Al-Baqarah, 2:127) The Prophet added, “Then both of them went on building and going round the Ka’bah, saying,

That is, the same supplication.

THE STORY OF THE ZABEEH

Allah has said in Surah As-Saffat, that when Ibrahim that migrated from the land of his people, he supplicated Allah to grant him a righteous son. Allah gave him the glad tidings of a righteous son, Isma’il stede. He was his first child and his age then was eighty six years.

In this Surah, Allah has informed (When he had reached the age of running with him (As-Saffat, 37:102) that is, was capable of helping him in his affairs, Sayyidina Ibrahim set it as was commanded in his dream that he offer him in sacrifice.

This was a command from Allah for His Khalil. It was a severely trying time. This was his only son. They had received him at an old age. He had been commanded earlier to leave him and his mother in a barren land but he had obeyed Allah unhesitatingly. There was nothing of grass and food or company in that land but Allah had taken care of them.

O my father, do as you are commanded, if Allah will, you will find me one of the persevering (As-Saffat, 37:102)

Obviously, this is an expression of deep obedience and submission to the father and to the Lord of men.(As Saffat, 37:103). They both bowed in submission to the command of Allah and he was laid face down that he may not observe the preparations. This is what Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Sa’eed bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Dahhak have said. It is also said that he was laid down as any animal is laid down. Sayyidina Ibrahim glorified Allah after beginning in His Name and Isma’il sentiel recited the shahadah

Allah replaced his son with what pleased Him and it is well known that it was a white, big-eyed sheep with horns.

Many Isra’ilite fabrications are found about this event but it is clear from the Qur’an that it was a great sacrifice ransomed and the Hadith tell us that the replacement was a sheep.

Imam Ahmad has reported from Safiyah bint Shaybah who had been informed by a woman of Banu Salim that the Messenger of Allahﷺ summoned Uthman bin Talhah. The women said that she asked Uthman, “Why did the Messenger of Allah ﷺ summon you!” He said, “The Messenger of Allah ﷺsaid to me, I had seen two horns of a sheep when I entered the House, but I forgot to ask you to conceal them.’ So, I concealed them lest there be anything in the house that would distract the worshiper.” (Ahmad, # 68,380)

This is evidence that Isma’il was the one offered for sacrifice because he was the one who resided at Makkah and we do not know of Ishaq having gone to Makkah in his childhood. But Allah knows best.