Impact of Shah-e-Hamdan’s Teachings on Religious Life of the Kashmiris

Sayyid Ali Hamdani was one of the prominent thinkers of
Islam. He expressed noble thoughts to guide others in right path. He was a great scholar in Arabic and Persian too. He was the author of more than one hundred books. He also
established Khanqahs and Kutb Khanas in Kashmir. He not only persuaded the people of Kashmir to come into the fold of Islam, purely on the basis of his spiritual force but also framed a programme on the betterment of moral material and religious condition of their lives

In the history of Islam, the Sufi saints have played a very important role. While the Muslim conquerors ventured to dominate the world with swords in their hands, the Muslim saints understood the woes of the people and gave the teachings of Islam
to them as a panacea for their deliverance. A healthy society depends on the development of the individual character and in
this direction the services of the mystics were the foremost importance. In the chain of the Sufis of Islam, 1 notice a great personality of the Muslim world who chose to work for the religious and cultural transformation of the life of the people in
Kashmir. Sayyid Ali Hamadani was a Sufi saint, devoted preacher of
Islam, great social reformer, scholar and a philosopher. He fully devoted his life to the propagation of Islamic teachings and
remained busy till to his death (6th Zilhijah, 786 A.H./A.D. 1385)) He was a versatile genius and was one of the most remarkable and luminous personality of the 14th century. His teachings were the essence of religious perfection of faith and
basis of good conduct. Uncorrupted by the court life and unspoiled by wealth and power, he influenced the rank of Muslim
society, improved its tone and helped in the evolution of Muslim mass culture specially in Kashmir. He is called the “Apostle of
Kashmir” on account of his contribution and work in the valley. 2)He commanded great influence and respect among the people because of his unique and simple views regarding religion and
culture. During his stay in Kashmir he found that the number of Muslims in the valley was very small while the majority of populations were Hindus. Non-lslamic Practices were alent in
society and Islam had not made any appreciable headway in the valley., In contravention of the Islamic teachings, Sultan
Qutub-ud-Din (King of Kashmir) had two wives who were sisters. The sayyid disapproved of these Non-lslamic Practices in Kashmir
and in accordance with his advice the Sultan divorced one of his wives and adopted the dress common in the Muslim countries,3) It was under the influence of the Sayid that Sultan Sikandar banned all intoxicants Sati and other evil practices. Religion is a light which enlightens the human conscience and helps a human beings to drink nectar at the fountain head of spiritual perfection. Islam made its way into Kashmir not by forcible conquest but by gradual conversion for which the influx of
foreign adventures from the South and Central Asia had prepared the ground. Bulbul shah a great Sufi of the Suharwardia order
came to Kashmir alongwith one thousand followers in the time of Suhadeva.

During the early period of the Shahmri dynasty a
caravan of Sayyids arrived in Kashmir who laid their imprints on every concernable area of human activity; religion, culture,
politics and economics. The pride of place can be given to Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani consequent upon the advice of his mentor, Sheik Sharaf-ud-Din, he undertook extensive travels. Kashmir also came up on his intenary. Kashmir has inherited a rich cultural and literary legacy which reflects a remarkable union of different
cultural and literacy movements.(5) For a long time Kashmir alongwith Nalanda and Taxilla shared fame as an aimportant seat
of learning and culture in the last here gathered scholars and saints from different parts of Asia to meet and exchange ideas on
fundamentals of religions. At the time of the arrival of
Shah-i-Hamadan, Leldew, a pious woman had already started a movement against the ritualistic and dogma ridden religion. The
fundamentals of her religion were rejection of idolatory, unity of God and practice of yoga. She preached harmony between Hindu Vedantism and Sufism.(6) The people of Kashmir which have had a rich intellectual
heritage respectfully responded to the movement started by Sayyid Ali Hamadani. His personal experience and his message
not only appealed the mind but it touched the heart of the masses especially those who alongwith physical appetite suffered from a
spiritual hunger. He came as a tempest to quench their unfulfilled desires. His philosophy was based on the material of human value.
He had the belief in the divinity of human soul, in the universality of love and in the dynamic power of emotion. The spiritual
exquisiteness and the divine dignity which clothed the personality of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani is explicit by his deeds and thoughts.
He was free from all the prejudices and preferences. He reached to such a pinnacle of reatness that different religious sects owned and adore him. His message of love was unlimited. Through his
religious experience he influenced every conceivable human
activity in Kashmir. In order to proliferate his own experience and transform the character of the people, he established the Khankahs in different parts of Kashmir.(2) This was a unique endevour which had a great influence on the religious life of the people. People used to gather in these Khankah’s for satiating
their spiritual as well as physical hunger. The Khankah was an institution where people came without any discrimination. This
free movement of people into the Khankah helped in breaking the class and caste society. The King and the common man were treated by Mir Sayyid Ali Hamdani with equal reverence.
The book that has had a tremendous influence on the
religiocultural life of Kashmir is Awardi-Fathiya. This piece of superb Islamic literature, is a marvelous legacy which the Amir- -e-Kabir bequeathed to Kashmiri Muslims so that they could cleanse their hearts every now and then by reciting it peacefully,
melodiously and with full belief, by understanding its meanings properly and acting upon its each phrase and thereby safeguard
themselves against sin, ignorance and innovation.8) How extraordinary was Sayyid Ali Hamdani that he made an individual possibility, a collective one by offering a comprehensive and multipurpose secital in Awradi Fathiya to the tradition mongers of Kashmir that time and today.
Chihal Asrar is yet another exclusive and grand work of
Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani. It is a store house of mystic experiences and is considered as a compendium of his glorious experiences.9) The secret and the spirit that is contained in this grand work is the remedy that was suggested by Sayyid for the number of ills that had corrupted the society of Jammu and Kashmir. According to the Sayyid, peace, tranquility and progress can be ushered in a
ciety if the man decides to realize himself. The process of self affirmation ultimately ends the quarrels, turmoils, turbulation, oppressions and deprivations. This was true at that time and this
is true at this time also.
Sayyid Ali Hamadani possessed vast knowledge, wisdom and understanding. His disciples were practical men, who worked hard to earn their living and at the same time were God-fearing
people, who absorbed themselves in prayers after their daily work. There was no caste system and all were equal. Such an economic order of the society greatly influenced the Hinuds and
they felt attracted towards this social order.10) It is evident that Islam became popular in Kashmir as a mystic order. When the
number of brotherhood increased, then the Sayyid deputed his chief disciples alongwith a batch to different parts of the valley. In this way, a net work of the Sufi brotherhood was spread and these centers became the nucleus of missionary works for spreading
Islam. Shah-e-Hamadan stood for tolerance. He abhorred coercion
in matters of religion. If he won over to Islam tens of thousands of converts, it was by peaceful preaching and thoughtful word which
was supported by the pleasing deed. This trait of Shah-e-Hamdan, which he exhibited in propagating Islam, was markedly present in his disciples whom he stationed in Kashmir. His legacy of tolerance was upheld by his eminent son and successor, Mir
Muhammad Hamadani, who, when Sultan Sikandar’s prime minister, Malik Saif-ud-Din turned hard on his former co-religionists was stopped by him from committing any
excesses. (11) He is reported to have referred him to verse 256 of Surah Al-Baqarah which sets forth the principle.
The new face that Kashmir has worn since that time bears a deep impress of Shah-e-Hamdan. Kashmir infact was reborn to a
new life in the world of Islam and the life of Kashmiri people
absorbed fully the new spirit of Islam. That was preached by Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Kashmiri society got rejuvenated and integrated into the new social order of Islam. For Kashmiris this became the life
model and harbinger of a new era, a transformation from an earlier
corrupt society to a new tradition of Islamic Life. The new social order has sustained, got strengthened and further re-invigorated
by several historical trials that the common people of Kashmir have suffered but borne with patience in the sincere hope that their
deliverance lies in the true teachings of Sayyid Ali Hamadani who preferred the masses for a real free and disciplined life on the
touch-stone of Islam. He made use of the religious tonic for the creation of a new social order. He broke the outer shell of rigidity
and dogma instead of creating a fear, created love of the ultimate reality. He made this love manifest for clearing the social system.
He not only succeeded in the mission but succeeded gloriously in uplifting the religious onditions of the Kashmiris.


What kinds of good news have been given by the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) about righteous women?

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) says:

After mindfulness of Allah, a believer gains nothing better for himself than a pious wife who obeys him when he commands her and pleases him when he looks at her. When he asks her to carry out a task, she is true to him and when he is away she protects her chastity as well as her husband’s property.” (Ibn Maja, Nikah, 5/1857)

A good wife is the one who obeys her husband and is compassionate to her children.

“The whole world is providence and the best provision of the world is a pious woman.” (Muslim, Kitab al- Rada, 64; See also: Nasa`i, Nikah, 15; Ibn Maja, Nikah, 5)

Thawban (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates:

When the verse “…and (as for) those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in Allah’s way, announce to them a painful chastisement” (9:34) was revealed, we were with the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) on an expedition. Some of the Companions said that now that we knew the ruling about gold and silver [we would no longer hoard them, but give them in charity]. We wished we knew what is good for us, so that we could accumulate that instead. Upon hearing this, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “The most valuable possessions are a tongue that mentions the names of Allah, a thankful heart and a wife who strengthens the faith of her husband.” (Tirmi- dhi, Tafsir, 9/9)