Sultan Imad-ud-Din Zangi was one of the great General and worrier on the Islamic world in the history. He was the son of Sultan Malik Shah. Sultan Mahmood conferred on him the govt of Mosul in conjunction with the title of Atabek, the Tutor of the Princess. When consolidating his power in Syria and Iraq, Imad-ud-Din was attacked on Edessa that was one amongst the strongest fortresses held by the Crusaders and fashioned the centre of their aggressive inroads into the neighboring territories held by the Muslims.
Imaduddin captured Edessa in 539 A.H. In keeping with Arab historians it absolutely was the “conquests of conquest” for Edessa was regarded by the Christians because the “stoutest prop of the Latin Empire. Thus the valley of the Euphratus was therefore finally saved from the marauding excursions of the Crusaders.
Shortly when achieving this sensible victory ‘Imad-ud-Din was assassination by a slave on the fifth of Rabi’ al-Thani , 541 A.H. Therefore perished one amongst the best heroes of Islam, who was opened the manner for a counter attacks against Crisaders. However, the task left incomplete by the good ‘Atabek was taken so much ahead by his illustrious son Nuruddin Zangi.
Above book is a complete biography and history of this great General and Ruler of Islam in Urdu language.
Imad Ed-Din Zengi and the Muslim revival
The new governor of Mosul, Imad Ed-Din Zengi, seized control of Aleppo in 1128. Bringing Mosul and Aleppo together “meant taking control of a major gateway to the internal regions of the Levant and towards Mesopotamia,” says Ahmad Hetait, former dean at the Faculty of Arts at Islamic University.
|The Muslims’ initial response had been inadequate but now it was time for a revival. The revival arose from the people, not the rulers.|
In effect, cutting off trade and communication routes between Antioch and Edessa, along with that of the county of Tripoli and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, posed a major obstacle to the crusaders as they confronted the Islamic world.
“The crusaders had relied on dividing the Muslim fiefdoms to deal with them separately, thanks to their insular rulers. Now a unified front was born,” says Muhammad Moenes Awad, professor of history at Sharjah University.
With Damascus protected by a truce with the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Imad Ed-Din Zengi began to prepare for what would be his greatest military achievement: On December 25, 1144, his army attacked and captured the County of Edessa in a matter of hours. It had been the first crusader state in the region but was now the first city to be retrieved by Muslims.
“This is seen as a breakthrough, the real start, the revival of the ‘jihad’ in the Muslim Near East. It’s the first big defeat for the crusaders and it shows that they can actually be defeated and that the Muslim revival can begin to gather some pace,” says Jonathan Phillips, professor of history at Royal Holloway, University of London.
Imad Ed-Din Zengi’s victory in Edessa was a turning point; it lifted the Muslims’ morale and enthusiasm for the fight. Two years later, however, Imad Ed-Din Zengi was killed by his own slave. He was succeeded by his son, Nour Ed-Din.
Imad ad-Din Zengi was the atabeg of Mosul, Aleppo, Hama and Edessa and founder of the Zengid dynasty, to which he gave his name.Zengi’s father, Aq Sunqur al-Hajib, governor of Aleppo under Malik Shah I, was beheaded for treason in 1094, and Zengi was brought up by Kerbogha, the governor of Mosul.
Zengi against DamascusFollowing the death in 1128 of Toghtekin, atabeg of Damascus, a power vacuum threatened to open Syria to renewed Crusader aggression.Zengi became atabeg of Mosul in 1127, and of Aleppo in 1128, uniting the two cities under his personal rule, and was formally invested as their ruler by the Sultan Mahmud II of Great Seljuk. Zengi had supported the young sultan against his rival, the caliph Al-Mustarshid. In 1130 he allied with Taj al-Mulk Buri of Damascus against the crusaders, but this was only a ruse to extend his power; he had Buri’s son taken prisoner and seized Hama from him. He also besieged Homs, the governor of which was accompanying him at the time, but could not capture it, so he returned to Mosul, where Buri’s son and the other prisoners from Damascus were ransomed for 50,000 dinars. In 1131 Zengi agreed to return the 50,000 dinars if Buri would deliver to him Dubays ibn Sadaqa, emir of al-Hilla in Iraq, who had fled to Damascus to escape al-Mustarshid. When an ambassador from the caliph arrived to bring Dubais back, Zengi attacked him and killed some of his retinue; the ambassador returned to Baghdad without Dubais.In 1134 Zengi became involved in Artuqid affairs, allying with the emir Timurtash (son of Ilghazi) against Timurtash’s cousin Da’ud. Zengi’s real desires, however, lay to the south, in Damascus. In 1135 Zengi received an appeal for help from Ismail, who had succeeded his father Buri as emir of Damascus, and who was in fear for his life from his own citizenry who considered him a cruel tyrant. Ismail was willing to surrender the city to Zengi in order to restore peace. None of Ismail’s family or advisors wanted this, however, and Ismail was murdered by his own mother, Zumurrud, to prevent him from turning over the city to Zengi’s control. Ismail was succeeded by his brother Shihab ad-Din Mahmud.Zengi was not discouraged by this turn of events and arrived at Damascus anyway, still intending to seize it. The siege lasted for some time with no success on Zengi’s part, so a truce was made and Shahib ad-Din’s brother Bahram-Shah was given as a hostage. At the same time, news of the siege had reached the caliph and Baghdad, and a messenger was sent with orders for Zengi to leave Damascus and take control of the governance of Iraq. The messenger was ignored but Zengi gave up the siege, as per the terms of the truce with Shahib ad-Din. On the way back to Aleppo, Zengi besieged Homs, whose governor had angered him, and Shahib ad-Din responded to the city’s call for help by sending Mu’in ad-Din Unur to govern it.
Conflict with the Crusaders and ByzantinesIn 1137 Zengi besieged Homs again but Mu’in ad-Din successfully defended it; in response to Zengi’s renewed attack, Damascus allied with the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem against him. Zengi laid siegeto the Crusader fortress of Baarin and quickly crushed the army of Jerusalem. King Fulk of Jerusalemagreed to surrender and was allowed to flee with his surviving troops. Zengi, realizing that this new expedition against Damascus was bound to fail, made peace with Shahib ad-Din, just in time to be confronted at Aleppo by an army sent by the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus. The Emperor had recently brought the Crusader Principality of Antioch under Byzantine control, and allied himself with Joscelin II of Edessa and Raymond of Antioch. Facing a combined Byzantine/crusader threat, Zengi mobilized his forces and recruited assistance from other Muslim leaders. In April 1138 the armies of the Byzantine emperor and the crusader princes laid siege to Shaizar, but were turned back by Zengi’s forces a month later.In May 1138 Zengi came to an agreement with Damascus. He married Zumurrud, the same woman who had murdered her son Ismail, and received Homs as her dowry. In July 1139 Zumurrud’s surviving son, Shihab ad-Din, was assassinated and Zengi marched on Damascus to take possession of the city. The Damascenes, united under Mu’in ad-Din Unur, acting as regent for Shihab ad-Din’s successor Jamal ad-Din, once again allied with Jerusalem to repel Zengi. Zengi also besieged Jamal ad-Din’s former possession of Baalbek, and Mu’in ad-Din was in charge of its defenses as well. After Zengi abandoned his siege of Damascus, Jamal ad-Din died of a disease, and was succeeded by his son Mujir ad-Din, with Mu’in ad-Din remaining as regent.Mu’in ad-Din signed a new peace treaty with Jerusalem for their mutual protection against Zengi. While Mu’in ad-Din and the crusaders joined together to besiege Banias, Zengi once more laid siege to Damascus, but quickly abandoned it again. There were no major engagements between the crusaders, Damascus, and Zengi for the next few years, but Zengi in the meantime campaigned in the north and captured Ashib and the Armenian fortress of Hizan. In 1144 Zengi besieged the crusader County of Edessa (see Siege of Edessa). Edessa was the weakest and least Latinized crusader state, and Zengi captured it on December 24, 1144. This event led to the Second Crusade, and later Muslim chroniclers noted it as the start of the jihad against the Crusader states.
DeathThough he continued his attempts to take Damascus in 1145, Zengi was assassinated by a Frankish slave named Yarankash in 1146.