Hazrat al-Qaqa’a bin Amru al- Tamim (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

sahabah-al-qaqa

Location: Medinat al-Manzala (The City of Manzala) – Daqahleyya

Shaykh al-Qaqa’a, the brother of ‘Aasim, (may God be pleased with him) was known to be a spirited warrior. Abu Bakr al-Sideeq (may God be pleased with him) narrates that the voice of Qaqa’a on the battlefield was ‘more effective than one thousand men’. He was a man (may God be pleased with him) remaining firm with valor in the face of great challenges whilst fighting the Persians at the battle of al-Qadisiya.

Sayf transmitted from Amru bin Tamam from his father that al-Qaqa’a bin Amru said:

“The Emissary of Godﷺ said to me once “what have you prepared for Jihad?” I replied “obedience to Allah and his messenger as well as [preparing] my horse.” He replied “that is the target!” and he began chanting “Sayfun lee Qaqa’a” (A sword for Qaqa’a).

When Sayyid Umar bin al-Khattab (may God be pleased with him) wrote to Sayyid Saad bin Abee Waqqas (may God be pleased with him) asking him “which warrior proved to be the fiercest in the battle of al-Qadisiya?” Sayyid Saad replied, “I did not see the likes of al-Qaqa’a bin Amru.” When Sayyid Khalid bin Waleed requested aid from Sayyid Abu Bakr al-Sideeq while he was sieging al-Heera, he sent him Qaqa’a bin Amru and said (may God be pleased with him) “no army is defeated when there are the likes of Qaqa’a in their ranks.”

After being victorious at the battle of Madayin al-Qaqa’a was granted the spoils of war of the Persian emperor Kosros. Among the ordinances he obtained were the armor of Heracules and Khaqan and the harnesses and swords of Nouman and Kosros. These precious spoils were sent by Sayyid Saad to Sayyid Umar bin al-Khattab (may God be pleased with them and with us) to redistribute.

al-Qaqa’a was one of the noble men whom Abu Bakr (may God be pleased with him) sent forward in the Battle of the Apostates. By order of Abu Bakr he sought out the apostate Alqama Bin Alatha in battle and slayed him. His presence was equally significant in the battles of Iraq, the Levant and Egypt. Wherever he went, he became a legend.

One of these legendary stories was in the battle of Dhat al-Salasil when the Persian leader going by the name of Hormuz challenged Khalid ibn al-Waleed to a duel after he had already secretly prepared a plan to assassinate him. The duel took off intensively after Khalid accepted. However, when Khalid came close to winning the duel a group of Hormuz’s assassins cornered him and nearly captured him. But all of sudden al-Qaqa’a, who had been secretly following the assassin’s movements thundered through their ranks dispersing them, which gave Khalid the opportunity to get back into the duel and eventually overcome his opponent.

During the conquest of Egypt al-Qaqa’a enjoyed a high position given to him by Amru bin al-A’as, whom he esteemed highly and whom prayed for his increased goodness, blessing and victory at any occasion. At one such occasion Bin al-A’as said to him “may God bless you in your Manzila (place of rest i.e. home). To which God, as history shows, replied in the most befitting way, as al-Qaqa’a was later on hosted with great hospitality and generosity in the Egyptian city that carried the name of al-Manzala.

Life

Ridda wars

Qa’qa ibn Amr converted along with his tribe, in the Year of the delegations, 631. But, for a brief period, he and other Tamim joined the force of false prophetess Sajah bint al-Harith before she was subdued during Ridda wars later on he carried successful military career under Khalid bin Walid suppressing another false prophet Tulayha in the Battle of Buzakha.[2] after the Ridda wars has been ended he continued to follow Khalid’s campaign to Syria and Iraq.

Battle of Chains

Qa’qa is taking part in the Battle of Chains and in one occasion when Qa’qa saw Khalid duelling the Sassanid champion Hormozd, he rushed to help his superior when the Sassanid sent aid to intercept the duel, killing all the Sassanid soldiers who intended to kill Khalid amid the duel in the process.[3] During this battle its reported that Qa’qa said “We did trample Hormuz with fury restrained…”[4]

Battle of Yarmou

In the famous battle of Yarmouk Under Khalid he served as his subordinate Officer in Mobile guard elite cavalry. subsequently taking part as ‘Fire Brigade’ role, plugging all weak points or reinforcing the routed line within the Muslim ranks.

Battle of al-Qādisiyyah

The Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattāb sent Al-Qa’qa’ ibn ‘Amr to take part in the battle of Qadisiyya. On 17 November 636, his units reached the battlefield at noon. Before arriving, Qa’qa divided his troops into several smaller groups and instructed them to appear on the battlefield one after the other, giving the impression that large reinforcements were arriving. Qa’qa was busy raising morale and arranging his companions to the place from where he parted from them in previous day. The Persian army’s elephants were a serious obstacle for the Muslims. To solve this problem, Qa’qa resorted to an ingenious device. The camels in his army were disguised to look like weird monsters. These “monsters” were moved to the Sassanid front and, upon seeing them, the Sassanid horses turned and fled. With the disorganization of the Sassanid cavalry, the Persian infantry at the left and center became exposed and vulnerable. Saad ordered an all-out attack by the Muslims. After the Persian army was routed Qa’qa ibn Amr went into pursuit and killed the Persian general Bahman, who commanded the Sassanid army at the Battle of the Bridge.

On 18 November 636 when the battle resumed he led the vanguard cavalry of three hundred accompanied by Qays bin Hazim who led the Hashim tribe kinsmen who came from Syria together with local Iraq tribal warriors. This time they are involved in melee combat against the elephant corps of Sassanid, busy of blinding and severing the Elephants trunks with spears and other melee weapons while the Muslim archers chopping down its riders. later on the situation was dire this day because despite they have already annihilated elephant corps but the Sassanids fought more ferociously, even Qa’qa’s fellow kinsmen, Khalid bin Yamar al-Tamimi was fallen in the night, so Qa’qa was taking the initiative to reinvigorate the Muslims armies.

Muslims attack the Persian front, Qa’qa’s men penetrated the right center of the Persian army and killed Rustum

At sunrise of 19 November 636, the fighting had ceased, but the battle was still inconclusive. Qa’qa, with the consent of Saad, was now acting as a field commander of the Muslim troops. He is reported to have addressed his men as follows:

If we fight for an hour or so more, the enemy will be defeated. So, warriors of the Bani Tameem make one more attempt and victory will be yours.

The Muslims’ left center led by Qa’qa surged forward and attacked the Sassanid right center, followed by the general attack of the Muslims’ corps. The Sassanids were taken by surprise at the resumption of battle. The Sassanids left wing and left center were pushed back. Qa’qa again led a group of Mubarizuns against the Sassanids’ left center and by noon, he and his men were able to pierce through the Sassanid center.[5]

Battle of Jalula

During the Battle of Jalula Mihran engaged his troops in an open battlefield, Hashim ibn Utbah decided to carry out his maneuver. He dispatched a strong cavalry regiment under one of his most illustrious cavalry commanders; Qaqa ibn Amr to capture the bridge over the entrenchments. The bridge was not heavily guarded as virtually all the Persian troops available were used to assault Muslim army’s main rank. Qaqa maneuvered around Persian right flank quickly captured the bridge at their rear. The news of a strong Muslim cavalry detachment in their rear was a serious setback to Persian morale. Hashim launched a frontal attack with Muslim infantry while Qaqa stuck at Persian rear with his cavalry. Thus resulted the Sassanid Army trapped and routed in result.

After the campaign in Jalula was ended he stayed and held a military post for a while in Kufa.

First Muslim civil war

During the uprising against the rule of Caliph Uthman, Qa’qa quickly suppress the revolt potential brought by Yazid bin Qays al-Arhabi to heel. Many times he went using his own reputation as the hero of Caliphate who respected and feared by peoples of Kufa to cooling down the heated political atmosphere before and after caliph Uthman was murdered. he even tried to mediate the faction of  Hazrat Ali(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hazrat Aisha(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to ensuing peaceful negotiation although his attempt bear fruitless and the Battle of the Camel unavoided

After the civil war was ended he was removed by Muawiyah together with other Hazrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) supporter from Kufa and exiled to Jerusalem

Death

Despite the exile he later went back to live in Kufa, where he allegedly died later in retiremen