Hazrat Ubadah bin as-Saamit r.a

 

Ubadah Ibn As Samit RA – The Black Man with the purest heart.

 
Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA was a companion of Rasulullah SAW and later one of the successful commanders of Rashidin army and served under the Rashidin Caliphs Saidina Abu Bakr As Siddiq RA and Saidina Umar Al Khattab RA. He was one of the main field commanders during the Muslim conquest of Egypt, sent with reinforcement from Medina. Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA served in Egypt as a corps commander from 640 to 642.
Ubadah bin As-Samit al-Ansari RA was one of the first twelve Madinan who embraced Islam after meeting Rasulullah SAW in the valley of `Aqabah, where they were all appointed Nuqaba’. Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA was then around forty years old. A dark-complexioned well-built man, he was frequently described as handsome. Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA was one of the ten given glad tiding of Paradise. He participated in every battle Rasulullah SAW fought and was one of the scribes who wrote the Wahy for Rasulullah SAW.
Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA wife, Umm Haram bint Milhan RA was Anas b. Malik’s RA maternal aunt. Rasulullah SAW visited them quite often and it was in their house that he saw a group of his followers in a dream, which looked like kings, sailing in a ship, and announced they were of Paradise. She pleaded that she be among them. He assured her that she will be among them. She was on the fleet that conquered Cyprus during Mu`awiyyah’s time. On her return journey she died when she slipped down from a mule.
His son, Walid, recalls that someone sent Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA a gift. Believing that his neighbor needed it more than he himself, he sent it across to him; who passed it on to someone needier. By the next day it was back at `Ubadah’s house.
Rasulullah SAW sent him a new Muslim to teach him Qur’an and Islam. The man gifted him a bow after the course was over at the time of departure. But when Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA showed it to Rasulullah SAW, he commented that it was a bow of fire.
During the time of Caliphate Saidina Umar Al Khattab RA, there was request for reinforcement from Syrian front. Saidina Umar Al Khattab RA sent Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA and three others, each heading a force of 1000, with a message that the four were equivalent of 4000 warriors. Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA was there at the fall of Hims, a stronghold of the Romans. Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA also participated in the fall of Tartus.
Ubadah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit RA was commandeering the Right Flank during the last battle the Romans put up at Qaysariyyah. It was a hard fought battle. Muslims were repelled several times. Finally, `Ubadah climbed down his horse and began advancing towards the Romans. Several others joined him. Ultimately, they became a big block moving forward. The Romans could not withstand and the day was for the Muslims.
When Muawiyah RA led an army into `Amuriyyah, he had a force of 10,000 with him which included Abu Dharr GhiFari RA, Shaddad b. Aws RA, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari RA and `Ubadah b. As-Samit RA. What army could stand before these Companions, even if few in numbers?
At Alexandria, `Ubadah b. As Samit RA was sent heading a delegation to the Roman commander to work out terms of treaty if it could be struck. But the white Romans waxed proud and said they did not like to negotiate with a black. `Ubadah told their commander that there were 1000 black men in the camp behind him each of who would not fear to confront 100 men at a time. The commander was alarmed by the conviction that resonated with `Ubadah’s voice. He attempted to first intimidate him with the news of the imminent arrival of a Roman force and then bribe him. But Ubadah b. As-Samit RA stubbornly told him that Muslims actually welcomed battling any force as it would eventually result in victory or martyrdom, two desirable consequences. Ubadah b. As-Samit RA gave him three options: accept Islam, pay Jizyah, or fight it out. Following consultations, they opted to fight it out, and the same day the castle fell to Muslims.
Ubadah b. As-Samit RA was a fearless warrior. Once while the Muslims had besieged a fort, `Ubadah b. As-Samit RA was found alone praying in a field. A few Roman soldiers came down, but before they could come close, he jumped to his horse and advanced towards them. They took a U-turn in panic and dropped down their arms to distract him in the chase. But Ubadah b. As-Samit RA chased them until they were in the safety of the fort. As he returned, he paid no attention to the arms they had dropped down.
But Ubadah b. As-Samit RA he was not a mere warrior: he also knew how to plan cities as an architect. With `Amr b. al-`Aas RA, he was involved in planning and developing the city of Fustat and was also involved in building the first mosque in Egypt which exists till today and is known as the mosque of `Amr b. al-`Aas RA. It is said that he wrote the entire Qur’an in Kufi script on the periphery and on the walls from top to bottom on marble so that anyone could read it while seated. The whole of this was destroyed by the British during their occupation of Egypt.
Conquest of Egypt: Ubadah ibn as-Samit RA address to the Egyptian Ruler Al-Muqawqis;
Amr ibn Al-‘As RA was commander of the army sent to conquer Egypt during the Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab RA. After the conquest, Amr became Egypt’s first Islamic governor (wali).
 

The Muslim forces laid siege to the Babylon Fortress in 641CE (in the area known as Coptic Cairo today) where al-Muqawqis, the Egyptian Ruler was holed up. General Amr ibn Al-‘As RA sent a delegation of ten men, headed by Ubadah ibn as-Samit RA, to speak with al-Muqawqis.

Ubadah b. As-Samit RA was black, and when the delegation traveled by boat to al-Muqawqis and entered his place, Ubadah stepped forward and al-Muqawqis was alarmed because of his blackness.
He said, “Take this black man away from me and let someone else come and speak to me!”
They said, “This black man is the best of us in knowledge and wisdom. He is our leader and the best of us, and has been appointed over us. We all refer to his opinion, and our leader has appointed him over us and ordered us not to go against him.”
Al-Muqawqis said to the delegation, “How could you accept this black man as the best among you? Rather he should be the least among you.”
They said, “No; even though he is black as you can see, he is the best in status among us, one of the foremost among us and one of the wisest. Blackness is not something bad among us.”
Al-Muqawqis said to Ubadah b. As-Samit RA, “Come forward, O black man, and speak to me gently, for your blackness alarms me, and if you speak harshly that will alarm me further.”
Ubadah b. As-Samit RA went forward and said, “I have heard what you said. Among my companions whom I left behind are a thousand men who are all as black as me, and even blacker than me and more terrifying to behold. If you saw them you would be even more alarmed. My youth has gone, but nevertheless I would not be scared if one hundred men of my enemy wanted to face me all at once, and the same is true of my companions, for our hope and our desire is to strive in jihad for the sake of Allah, seeking the pleasure of Allah.

The Grave of Ubadah Ibn As Samit RA in Baitul
Maqdis – (Jerusalem) Palestine.

 

 
The reason for our campaign against our enemies who wage war against Allah is not hope of worldly gains or the accumulation of wealth; rather Allah has permitted that to us and made the booty we acquire permissible for us. But none of us cares whether he has a qintar of gold or has nothing but a dirham, because all we want from this world is something to eat and ward off hunger, and a cloth to wrap around ourselves. If one of us owns nothing more than that, that is enough. If he gets a qintar of gold he will spend it for the sake of Allah and be content with the little that is left in his hand, because the pleasure of this world is not true pleasure and its luxury is not true luxury; rather real pleasure and luxury come in the Hereafter.
This is how our Lord has guided us and our Rasulullah  has taught us; he advised us that our ambition in this world should be just to have enough to ward off hunger and cover our awrah (nakedness); our main concern should be to please our Lord and strive in jihad against His enemies.”
When al-Muqawqis heard that, he said to those who were around him: “Have you ever heard anything like what this man is saying? His appearance alarmed me but his words alarm me more than his appearance. Allah has sent this man and his companions out to destroy the world! I think that they are bound to prevail over the entire world.”

A Man with Excellent Religous Integrity.
Ubadah b. As-Samit RA was strict in religious matters. Once a speaker of a Friday sermon began to praise Muawiyah RA (the Governor) while he was in the audience. Ubadah b. As-Samit RA took a handful of dust and threw it into the mouth of the speaker. Muawiyah was pretty upset. Ubadah b. As-Samit RA said he had done what Rasulullah SAW had recommended to do to people who praise another in his face. On another occasion Muawiyah RA quoted his own opinion when Ubadah b. As-Samit RA quoted a hadith. Ubadah b. As-Samit RA left Syria in disgust. When Caliph Umar Al Khattab RA enquired why he had come back to Madinah, and heard the reason, he urged him to go back saying, “A piece of land has no good in it which hasn’t got a man of your kind.” `Caliph Umar Al Khattab RA wrote to Muawiyah, “You are not a governor over him.”
Ubadah b. As-Samit RA was one of those who were appointed by Caliph Umar Ibn Al Khattab RA to teach the people Qur’an and Islam. Ubadah b. As-Samit RA remained in Hims( Nowadays Homs) until the people were competent in the Qur’an and then left for Palestine where he remained the rest of his life as a state-appointed Qadi.
His students included such renowned Successors as: Muhammad b. Rabi`ah (a younger generation Companion); Abu Muslim al-Khawlani; Jubayr b. Nufayr; Janadah b. Abi Umayyah; Abdul Rahman b. `Aseelah Sanabihi; Abu Idris al-Khwalani; Abu Ash`ath San`ani; Kathir b. Murrah and others.
According to well-established reports, he died in the year 34 H in Palestine (at Jerusalem) when he was 72. His last narration on his death bed was, whoever said, ‘There is no Deity save Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger,’ will be spared Hellfire.
When his son requested him to declare his will at the time of death, he asked him to help him be seated and then gave this piece of advice: My son, you will not experience full bliss of faith (Iman) nor will you fully comprehend it until you believe in destiny governing good and evil.
When death approached him, he asked to be moved to the courtyard and to collect together his homefolk, relatives, slaves, neighbors and others. He asked them whether they had any claim on him (such as a misbehavior, a taunt, a wrong, etc.). When they said he had been like their father, he made Allah witness. Before breathing his last he requested that when he is dead, ‘Let each of you make a goodly ablution, enter a mosque, Pray and then supplicate for my forgiveness.’ This demonstrates how fearful of Allah one of the ten given glad tiding of Paradise was.
Ubadah b. As-Samit RA reports a statement by Rasulullah SAW that there are a hundred levels in Paradise; each level is a distance of a hundred years or the distance between the earth and the heaven. And Firdausi is at the highest level from where spring out four rivers. `Arsh is directly above it. ‘So, whenever you seek from Allah seek Firdausi.’
  

The Grave of Ubadah Ibn As Samit RA in Baitul

Maqdis – (Jerusalem) Palestine.
Brief historical facts about the ancestral roots of Ubadah Ibn As Samit RA.
And Who Was That Black Man?
As I mentioned in my previous post, when Muqawqis, the 7th century Greek ruler of Egypt, saw the extreme blackness of Ubadah ibn Al-Samit’s complexion when he stepped forward to speak as the leader of the delegation sent at Muqawqis’s request, he shouted: “Get this black man away from me and send forward someone else to speak!” Let’s take a closer look at who Ubadah ibn Al-Samit RA was. He is Ubadah the son of Al-Samit the son of Qais the son of Asram the son of Fihr the son of Tha’alaba the son of Ghanim the son of ‘Auf the son of Amru the son of ‘Auf the son of Al-Khazraj the son of Al-Haritha the son of Amru the son of ‘Aamir the son of Haritha the son of Amr al Qais the son of Tha’laba the son of Mazin the son of Al-Azd the son of Al-Ghawth the son of Nabt the son of Malik the son of Zaid the son of Kahlan the son of Saba the son of Yashjab the son of Ya’arub the son of Qahtan.
His mother was Qurrat Al-Ain the daughter of Ubadah the son of Nadla the son of Malik the son of Ajlaan the son of Zaid the son of Ghanim the son of Saalim the son of ‘Auf the son of Amru the son of ‘Auf the son of Al-Khazraj the son of Al-Haritha the son of Amru the son of ‘Aamir the son of Haritha the son of Amr al Qais the son of Tha’laba the son of Mazin the son of Al-Azd the son of Al-Ghawth the son of Nabt the son of Malik the son of Zaid the son of Kahlan the son of Saba the son of Yashjab the son of Ya’arub the son of Qahtan.

 

As you can see, Ubadah ibn Al-Samit RA is a descendant of Saba from both his father’s side and his mother’s side. There is a chapter of the Quran which speaks of the people of Saba and the name of the chapter is Saba.

 

Allah says in Surat Saba of the Quran:

 

“There was for [the tribe of] Saba’ in their dwelling place a sign: two [fields of] gardens on the right and on the left. [They were told], “Eat from the provisions of your Lord and be grateful to Him. A good land [have you], and a forgiving Lord.”
Surah Saba 34:15
Tafsir al-Jalalayn
Verily there was for Sheba (Saba’, declined [as li-Saba’in] or left as indeclinable [li-Saba’a], is [the name of] a tribe that took its name from one of their Arab ancestors) in their dwelling-place, in Yemen, a sign: indicating God’s power, exalted be He, two gardens (jannatān, a substitution [for āyatun, ‘a sign’]) to the right and to the left, in other words, on the right side of their valley and on its left side. And it was said to them: ‘Eat of your Lord’s provision and give thanks to Him, for the graces He has bestowed on you in the land of Sheba. A good land — in which there was no dung, gnats, flies, fleas, scorpions, or snakes, and in which when a stranger passed through with his clothes lice-infected, these [lice] would be killed off because of the purity of its air — and, God is, a forgiving Lord.’
“But they turned away [refusing], so we sent upon them the flood of the dam, and we replaced their two [fields of] gardens with gardens of bitter fruit, tamarisks and something of sparse lote trees”.
Surah Saba 34:16
Tafsir al-Jalalayn
But they were disregardful, of giving thanks to Him and became disbelievers, so We unleashed upon them the flood of the Dam (al-‘arim is the plural of ‘arima, which is a structure or something similar that holds water back [to be stored] for when it is needed), in other words, [We unleashed upon them] the flood-waters of their valley which had been held back by the mentioned [structure] so that they engulfed their two gardens together with all their property. And We gave them in place of their two gardens two gardens bearing (dhawātay, a dual form of [feminine plural] dhawāt; usually [the form dhātay from] the singular [would have been used]) bitter fruit, bitter and vile (ukul may be read as a genitive annexation [ukulin khamtin] in the sense of ‘that which is eaten [thereof being bitter]; or it may be read without [as ukuli khamtin]; and this [phrase] is supplemented [by the following, wa-athlin wa-shay’in min sidrin qalīl) and tamarisk and sparse lote trees.
“[By] that We repaid them because they disbelieved. And do We [thus] repay except the ungrateful?”
Surah Saba 34:17
Tafsir al-Jalalayn
That, replacement [of what they had], is what We requited them with for their ingratitude: and is anyone but the ingrate ever [so] requited? (read hal yujāzā illā’l-kafūru; or read as hal nujāzī illā’l-kafūra, ‘Would We requite anyone but the ingrate?’), in other words, it is only the like of such who is called to account.
“And We placed between them and the cities which We had blessed [many] visible cities. And We determined between them the [distances of] journey, [saying], “Travel between them by night or day in safety.”
Surah Saba 34:18
Tafsir al-Jalalayn
And We set between them, between Sheba, who were in Yemen, and the towns which We had blessed, with [abundance of] water and trees — these being the towns of Syria, to which they used to travel for commerce — prominent towns, continuous [along the route] from Yemen to Syria, and We facilitated [for travellers] the journeying through them, such that they would rest for the afternoon in one and spend the night in the next, [and so on] until the end of their travel, having no need of any supplies or water along the way; and We said, ‘Travel through them night and day safely’, having no fear by night or by day.
“But [insolently] they said, “Our Lord, lengthen the distance between our journeys,” and wronged themselves, so we made them narrations and dispersed them in total dispersion. Indeed in that are signs for everyone patient and grateful.”
Surah Saba 34.19
Tafsir al-Jalalayn
But they said, ‘Our Lord, make far apart (ba‘‘id: a variant reading has bā‘id) the stages of our travel’, to Syria: make these [stages through] deserts, so that they could glory before the poor in riding their camels and bearing their supplies and water, and so they behaved wantonly with the graces [bestowed on them by God], and they wronged their souls, through disbelief, and so We made them bywords, [of wrongdoing] in this respect, for those who came after them, and We caused them to disintegrate totally, We scattered them all over the lands. Surely in that, which is mentioned, there are signs, lessons, for every [servant who is] steadfast, [in refraining] from acts of disobedience, grateful, for [God’s] graces.

Pledge Of Allegiance – The 1st Pledge of Aqabah – in Mina.

Imam Ahmed relates that Ibn Al-Abbas said: “A man asked Rasulullah SAW about Saba – was it a man, a woman, or a land – and Rasulullah SAW said it was a man and he had 10 sons, 6 of them lived in Yemen and 4 of them lived in the area of Syria (Sham). Those who lived in Yemen are the tribes of Midhhaj, Kinda, Al-Azd, Al-Ash’ariyeen, Al-Anmaar, and Himyar. As for those who lived in Syria, they are the tribes of Lakhim, Judhaam, ‘Aamila, and Ghassaan.”

 

Ubadah b. As-Samit RA was one of the chiefs of the Ansar. The Ansar are the two Yemenite tribes – Al-Aus and Al-Khazraj – that occupied Yathrib after the flooding of the Aram Dam. They (the Al-Aus and Al-Khazraj tribes – the Ansar) helped Rasulullah SAW when he and the other Muslims were being persecuted in Makkah. Ubadah b. As-Samit RA was from the Al-Khazraj tribe of Ansar.
Rasulullah SAW commanded the Ansar to choose 12 of their chiefs to pledge allegiance to him – 9 from the Al-Kharaj and 3 from the Al-Aus. Ubada ibn Al-Samit was one of the 9 chiefs that were chosen to represent the Al-Khazraj tribe. This pledge was called the 1st Pledge of Aqaba. The following were the terms of the pledge:
We shall not associate anyone with Allah (The One God): whether in worship, His attributes, His power or His authority.
We shall not indulge in adultery, fornication, and practice or propagate any other indecency.
We shall not steal or rob anyone’s property in any manner or under any pretense.
We shall not practice the custom of killing children.
We shall not falsely accuse or backbite anyone.
We shall not disobey you in good deeds and just cause.
We shall always follow you, be it hard or easy, to our liking or not, and we shall act according to your commands. We shall follow and obey your decisions even if it be against ourselves and in favor of others.
We shall not participate in opposing the deserving persons of authority or positions.
We shall support the truth and justice and stand firm under all circumstances. In matters of Allah’s religion, we shall not be afraid for our name, disrepute, disgrace, or blame.

The Pledge of Allegiance – 2nd Pledge of Aqabah in Mina.
The following year during the Pilgrimage season, there was the 2nd Pledge of Aqaba. This 2nd pledge of Aqaba consisted of 75 members of Ansar who traveled to Makkah and Ubadah b. As-Samit RA was one of the leaders of the delegation and one of the chiefs of the Ansar. Concerning this pledge, Ka‘b bin Malik Al-Ansari said:
“We set out for pilgrimage and struck a rendezvous in mid Tashreeq Days. We were accompanied by a celebrity and a notable of ours called ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Haram, who was still a polytheist. We disclosed to him our intention of meeting Rasulullah SAW and exhorted him to join our ranks and give up polytheism lest he should serve as wood for Hell in the Hereafter. He promptly embraced Islam and witnessed the serious meeting at Al-‘Aqabah.”
That very night we slept with our people in our camps. After a third of the night had elapsed, we began to leave stealthily and met in a hillock nearby. We were seventy three men and two women Nusaibah bint Ka‘b RA from the Najjar and Asma’ bint ‘Amr from Bani Salamah. We waited for Rasulullah SAW until he came in the company of his uncle Al-‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib RA who (though himself not a Muslim), adjured us not to draw his nephew away from the protection of his own kindred unless we were fully prepared to defend him even at the risk of our lives. He was the first to speak:
“O you people of the Khazraj — the Arabs used to call the Ansar (Helpers) Khazraj, whether from Khazraj or Aws — you all know the position that Muhammad holds among us. We have protected him from our people as much as we could. He is honoured and respected among his people. He refuses to join any party except you. So if you think you can carry out what you promise while inviting him to your town, and if you can defend him against the enemies, then assume the burden that you have taken. But if you are going to surrender him and betray him after having taken him away with you, you had better leave him now because he is respected and well-defended in his own place.”
 [Ibn Hisham 1/440-442]
Ka‘b replied: “We have heard your words, and now O Messenger of Allah, it is for you to speak and take from us any pledge that you want regarding your Lord and yourself.”
The Messenger of Allah then preached the Faith, and the pledge was taken. Al-Imam Ahmad, on the authority of Jabir, gave the following details:
The Ansar (Helpers) asked the Messenger of Allah about the principles over which they would take a pledge. The Prophet answered:
1. To listen and obey in all sets of circumstances.
2. To spend in plenty as well as in scarcity.
3. To enjoin good and forbid evil.
4. In Allah’s service, you will fear the censure of none.
5. To defend me in case I seek your help, and debar me from anything you debar yourself, your spouses and children from. And if you observe those precepts, Paradise is in store for you. [Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasul]
 p.155; Ibn Hisham 1/454]
In another version narrated by Ka‘b, he said:
Rasulullah SAW began to speak, recited some Quranic verses, called people unto Allah, exhorted them to enter the fold of Islam and concluded saying: “I give you my pledge that you debar me from whatever you debar your women and children from.” Here Al-Bara’ bin Ma‘rur, caught him by hand, and said: “Oh yes, we swear by Allah, Who sent you as a Rasul in Truth, that we will debar you from whatever we debar our women from. Have confidence in us, O Messenger of Allah. By Allahu, we are genuine fighters and quite reliable in war, it is a trait passed down to us from our ancestors.”
Then ‘Abul Haitham At-Taihan interrupted and said: “O Prophet of Allâh! Between us and the Jews, there are agreements which we would then sever. If Allâh grants you power and victory, should we expect that you would not leave us, and join the ranks of your people (meaning Quraish)?” The Prophet [pbuh] smiled and replied:
“Nay, it would never be; your blood will be my blood. In life and death I will be with you and you with me. I will fight whom you fight and I will make peace with those with whom you make peace.” [Ibn Hisham 1/442]
After the negotiations concerning the conditions of allegiance had ended, and all of the audience were unanimously agreed to ratify it, two men of the early generation of converts who had embraced Islam in the eleventh and twelfth years rose to their feet to apprise the others of the serious step they were about to take so that they could give their pledge fully aware of the whole affair and consequently be ready for the sacrifice they were expected to make. Al ‘Abbas bin Ubada bin Nadlah, in this context, remarked: “O you people of Khazraj! Do you know the significance of the pact that you are entering into with this man? You are in fact avowing that you will fight against all and sundry (the expression he used in Arabic was the Red People and the Black People – meaning the non-Arabs (the Red People) and the Arabs (the Black People)). If you fear that your property will be at stake or the lives of your nobles will be endangered, then leave him now, because if you do this after the pledge, it will be degrading for you both in this world and the world to come. But if you think that you can carry out what you are called upon to do in spite of the loss of precious lives and property, then undertake this heavy responsibility, and I swear by Allâh, that herein lies the good of this world and that of the next.”
They replied, “We have already considered the loss of property and the murder of our notables, yet we pay him allegiance. But what is our reward if we observe all the items of this pact?” Rasulullah SAW replied: “Paradise is in store for you.” Then they asked him to stretch out his hand, and they all stretched out their hands and took the pledge. Only at that time did As‘ad bin Zurarah come to realize the people’s readiness for sacrifice in the cause of Allâh. [Ibn Hisham 1/446]
On the authority of Jabir, who said: “When we started to pay allegiance to Rasulullah SAW, As‘ad bin Zurarah stood up and gave the following short address: “Take it easy people of Yathrib! We have not covered that long distance except because we have had deep belief that he (Muhammad [pbuh]) is Rasulullah. We are already convinced that following him entails departure from the pagan Arabs even if it were at the risk of our life. Should you preserve in this course, holdfast to it, and your great reward is placed in the Hand of Allâh, but if you are caught in fear, I admonish you to give it up just now, and then you would be more excusable by Allâh.” [Musnad Ahmad]
With respect to the two women, the pledge was taken orally for Rasulullah SAW had never shaken hands with a strange lady. [Muslim 2/131]
Rasulullah SAW then asked the group to appoint twelve deputies to preach Islam to their people in Madinah, to shoulder the responsibility of implementing the articles of this pledge and to guide the respective men of their own tribes in matters relating to the propagation of Islam. The deputies elected were nine from Al-Khazraj: As‘ad bin Zurarah bin ‘Ads, Sa‘d bin Ar-Rabi‘ bin ‘Amr, ‘Abdullah bin Rawahah bin Tha‘labah, Rafi‘ bin Malik bin Al-‘Ajlan, Al-Bara’ bin Ma‘rur bin Sakhr, ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Haram, ‘Ubadah bin As-Samit bin Qais, Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah bin Dulaim and Al-Mundhir bin ‘Amr bin Khunais. Three others were from Al-Aws: Usaid bin Hudair bin Sammak, Sa‘d bin Khaithamah bin Al-Harith and Rifa‘a bin ‘Abdul Mundhir bin Zubair. Once again, those twelve men were sworn to act as surety over the affairs of their people just as the Christ’s disciples did, and Rasulullah SAW would act as surety over his people, meaning all the Muslims.
Somehow or other, the news of these secret desert meetings with the Madinian leaked out. Rasulullah SAW  immediately knew that it was a certain pudgy ugly devil, inhabited in Al-‘Aqabah, who discovered their meeting, and he threatened to settle his account with him as soon as possible.
On hearing this, Al-‘Abbas bin Nadlah said “By Allâh, Who has sent you in Truth, we are powerful enough to put the people of Mina (the Quraishites) to our swords tomorrow, if you desire.” Rasulullah SAW said “We have not been commanded to follow that course. Now, back to your camps.” They went back to sleep till morning. [Ibn Hisham 1/448]
Do you know who the above-mentioned Al-Abbas ibn Ubada ibn Nadla is? Remember that Ubada ibn Al-Samit’s mother is Qurrat Al-Ain the daughter of Ubada the son of Nadla, so Al-Abbas ibn Ubada ibn Nadla is the maternal uncle of Ubada.

 

A more elaborate version about the Conquer of Egypt from the Roman-Byzantine.
When Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab RA  told Amru ibn Al-Aas RA that he was going to send 4000 soldiers to help him complete the conquest of Egypt, he told him that he was going to put at the head of every 1000 men, a man who is equal to 1000 men. One of these men who equaled 1000 men and who was assigned to lead 1000 of the 4000 men was Ubada ibn Al-Samit RA.
When the Muslims were at Yarmouk (near present-day border between Syria and Jordan) waiting to fight the Romans in Syria and after they had beaten the Romans in a number of battles and had taken Syrian territories occupied by the Romans, Constantine the son of Heraclius sent an envoy to the different kings encouraging them to fight the Muslims. When the envoy reached Mahan, the king of Armenia, Mahan called the kings and Roman generals and read to them the letter of Constantine the son of Heraclius and ordered them to march forth and the Roman armies marched forth in the direction of Yarmouk one after the other and every time they passed through a territory that the Muslims had taken from the Romans, they rebuked the citizens by saying: “Woe to you! You have left the people of your religion and have favored the Arabs!” And the citizens of the former Roman territories would respond by saying: “You are more worthy of blame than we are. You ran away from them (the Arabs) and left us at their mercy, so we reached a settlement with them for ourselves!”
When the Roman forces all reach Yarmouk and settled at a place near Golan, a scout was sent to observe the Muslim army. The assembled army consisted of contingents of Romans, Greeks, Slavs, Franks, Georgians, Armenians and Christian Arabs. This force was organized into five armies, whose commanders were: Mahan, King of Armenia who commanded a purely Armenian army; Qanateer, a Slavic prince commanded all the Slavs; Jabla bin AI Aiham, King of the Ghassani Arabs, commanded an exclusively Christian Arab force. The remaining contingents (all European) were placed under Gregory and Dairjan. Mahan was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the entire Imperial army.
The Ghassani Arabs, as I mentioned earlier, were Yemeni Arab descendants of Saba who settled in the area of Syria. The ancestor of the Ghassanids is Imr Al-Qais the son of Mazin the son of Al-Azd and the ancestor of Al-Khazraj is Imr Al-Qais’s brother Tha’alaba the son of Mazin the son of Al-Azd, so the Ghassanids and Al-Khazraj are cousins. The Ghassanids were a Roman vassal state and the Romans found them (the Ghassanids) a powerful ally in Syria. They (Ghassanids) were the buffer zone against the other Bedouins penetrating Roman territory.
Jabla ibn Al-Aiham was at the head of 60,000 Christian Arabs from the tribes of Ghassan, Lakhim, and Judhaam. They stood in front of Mahan. The total number of Roman troops numbered 200,000 and the number of Muslim troops was only 24,000. When the Muslims saw the huge number of Roman troops, they said “There is no power or strength except with Allah The Exalted The Great!” Atia ibn ‘Aamir said, “I swear by Allah, the Roman soldiers of Yarmuk were so numerous that they looked like a swarm of locust! Their numbers were so large that they covered the entire valley! I looked at the Muslims and they appeared to be alarmed and they kept repeating ‘ There is no power or strength except with Allah The Exalted The Great!’ and Abu Ubaida ibn Jarrah said ‘ Our Lord, pour down steadfastness upon us, make our feet firm, and help us against this unbelieving people’ (Surat al-Baqara, 250). So the Muslims prepared themselves and Abu Ubaida sent spies to bring him information about the enemy – their numbers, their weapons, their equipment – and he said ‘I hope Allah makes it all spoils for us.'”
Heraclius sent a messenger to Mahan ordering him not to start the war with the Muslims until he sends to the Muslims a messenger promising that he would send annually much money and gifts to their Commander Umar ibn Al-Khattab and to all their Amirs and that they can have all that is between Al-Jaabiya and Al-Hejaz. Al-Jabiya is situated approximately 80 km. south of Damascus. Mahan said to the messenger that it was absolutely out of the question that the Muslims would ever agree to that. Jerjeer, one of the Roman kings in the army, said: “You lose nothing by just doing what Emperor Heraclius mentioned.” Mahan then said to Jerjeer, “You go to them and ask them to send forward an intelligent man for you to speak earnestly to about what you have just heard.”
So Jerjeer then wore clothes of silk brocade, placed a jeweled headband on his head, and rode a high horse with a golden saddle adorned with pearls and jewels. One thousand horsemen rode with him until they overlooked the camp of the Muslims. Jerjeer then stopped those with him and then approached the Muslims and said, “Oh you Arabs! I am a messenger from King Mahan. Let your Commander in charge come forward so that I can tell him what I have to offer so that we may possibly come to an agreement and avoid spilling each other’s blood.”
The Muslims heard him and then informed their Commander Abu Ubaida and Abu Ubaida went to him personally wearing a garment made of cotton and a black turban and a sword around his waist. When he reached Jerjeer, his horse kicked after the neck of his horse touched Jerjeer’s horse’s neck. Abu Ubaida (RA) said, “Oh disbeliever. Say what you have to say and ask what you want to ask!” Jerjeer then said, “Oh you Arabs! Don’t let your saying that you defeated the Roman soldiers in many battles and that you conquered many Roman territories and have taken much of their land deceive you! Look at the armies that have come to you now. We have formed a coalition and the Romans have made an alliance to not turn away and not be defeated and to stand until the last man. And as you can see, you don’t have the power to face us. So go back to your land. You have taken what you have taken from the lands of Emperor Heraclius. The Emperor has decided to let you keep his lands that you have taken during these three years and keep the weapons and gold and silver that you have taken. When you entered Syria you were destitute, so accept what has been offered to you. Otherwise, you will be destroyed”.
Commander Abu Ubaida (RA) then said: “Concerning what you said about the Roman armies making an alliance to not turn away and not be defeated, surely when the Romans see the edge of our swords, they will run away in retreat. As for your trying to scare us with talk about your large numbers, you have seen our small numbers and our feeble bodies and how we met your troops with their large numbers and powerful weapons and equipment. The most beloved thing for us is the day we go to war with you and fight you until it can be known who is the most firm and steadfast at war.”
Jerjeer then returned to Mahan and informed him what happened and suggested that he send one of the Christian Arabs to go and speak to the Arabs. He said, “Those Arabs incline toward each other.” Mahan agreed and he sent for Jabla ibn Al-Aiham the Ghassanid and said to him, “Oh Jabla. Go to them and frighten them by telling them how large our numbers are. Place fear in their hearts.” So Jabla set out and when he approach the camp of the Muslims, he shouted in a loud voice, “Oh Arabs! Send forward someone from the Children of Amru the son of ‘Aamir so that I can speak to him about what I was sent for”. Look above at the ancestors of Ubada ibn Al-Samit to remember who Amru ibn ‘Aamir is.
When Abu Ubaidah (RA) heard what Jabla ibn Al-Aiham said, he said to the others, “They have sent someone from our race. They want to deceive us through family ties and kinship. Send them someone from the Ansar from the Children of Amru ibn ‘Aamir. Ubada ibn Al-Samit (RA) quickly came forward and said, “Oh Commander. I’ll go to him and see what he has to say and answer him”. So Ubada ibn Al-Samit RA  mounted his horse and set out in Jabla’s direction until he was in front of him. Jabla ibn Al-Aiham looked at a tall, very black-skinned man as if he is from the tribe of Shanua in front of him and he (Jabla) stood in awe and his heart became full of fear from the man’s massiveness. Jabla then said to the tall, massive, very black-skinned man in front of him, “Oh young man. Who are you from?” Ubada ibn Al-Samit RA said, “I am from the Children of Amru ibn ‘Aamir.” Jabla said, “Greetings. And who are you?” Ubada said, “I am Ubada ibn Al-Samit, the Companion of Rasulullah SAW. Ask what you want to ask.” Jabla then said, “Oh cousin. I have come forward to speak to you because I know that most of you are my family and kin. I have come to give you advice. These people who are in front of you have come with armies the like of which you have never seen before. 

These people have behind them soldiers and citadels and fortresses and riches. Don’t think that you have defeated the forces of the Romans. There are ups and downs in war. If these people defeat you, there will be no refuge for you except death, but if they are defeated, they will return to their lands, their camps, their treasures, and their citadels. Take whatever you have obtained until now and return to your homes safely.” 

Ubada ibn Al-Samit said, “Oh Jabla. Don’t you know how we faced your advanced forces at Ajnadain and other places and how Allah SWT granted us victory over you and how your tyrant ran away? We know who remains from your forces and they are easy for us. We are not afraid of these forces that have come. We have tasted blood and we haven’t found blood sweeter than the blood of the Romans! Jabla, I call you to the religion of Islam and to enter our religion with your people and keep your honor in this life and the next life. Don’t be a servant of these uncouth Romans and put your life on the line to save them from destruction. You are from the chiefs of the Arabs and a king. Verily our religion has appeared. Follow the path of those who have repented and returned to Allah and believe in Him and say: There is no God but Allah and Mohamed is the Messenger of Allah…”

 

Selected Hadith Narrated by and Attributed to Ubadah Ibn As Samit RA
Found in: The Chapters of Establishing the Prayer and the Sunnah Regarding Them
Hadith no: 837
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
That the Prophet (saw) said: “There is no prayer for the one who does not recite Fatihatil-Kitab in it.” (Sahih)

 

Found in: The Chapters of Establishing the Prayer and the Sunnah Regarding Them
Hadith no: 1257
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
ThatRasulullah SAW said: “There will be leaders who will be distracted by matters and they will delay the prayer until after its proper time. So make your prayer with them voluntary.” Sahih

 

Found in: The Chapters of Establishing the Prayer and the Sunnah Regarding Them
Hadith no: 1401
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
“I heard Rasulullah SAW  say: ‘Five prayers that Allah has enjoined upon His slaves, so whoever does them, and does not omit anything out of negligence, on the Day of Resurrection Allah will make a covenant with him that He will admit him to Paradise. But whoever does them but omits something from them out of negligence, will not have such a covenant with Allah; if He wills He will punish him, and if He wills, He will forgive him.’”

 

Found in: The Chapters of Establishing the Prayer and the Sunnah Regarding Them
Hadith no: 1424
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
That he heard Rasulullah say: “No one prostrates to Allah but Allah will record one Hasanah (good reward) for him, and will erase thereby one bad deed and raise him in status one degree. So prostrate a great deal.”

 

Found in: Chapters Regarding Funerals
Hadith no: 1473
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
That the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “The best of shrouds is the Hullah (two-piecer).” Daif

 

Found in: Chapters Regarding Funerals
Hadith no: 1545
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
“When Rasulullah SAW followed a funeral, he would not sit down until it had been placed in the niche-grave. A rabbi came to him and said: ‘This is what we do, O Muhammad!’ So the Messenger of Allah (saw) sat down and said: ‘Be different from them.’” Daif

 

Found in: The Chapters on Divorce
Hadith no: 2058
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
From Rubai bint Muawwidh bin Afra: He said: “I said to her: ‘Tell me your Hadith.’ She said: ‘I got Khul’ from my husband, then I came to Uthman and asked him: “What waiting period do I have to observe?” He said: “You do not have to observe any waiting period, unless you had intercourse with him recently, in which case you should stay with him until you have menstruated.” In that, he was following the ruling of Rasulullah SAW concerning Maryam Maghaliyyah, who was married to Thabit bin Qais and she got Khul from him.’ “

 

Found in: The Chapters on Business Transactions
Hadith no: 2157
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
“I taught people from Ahlus-Suffah” Qur’an and how to write, and one of them gave me a bow. I said: ‘It is not money, and I can shoot (with it) for the sake of Allah. I asked Rasulullah SAW about it and he said: ‘If it would please you to have a necklace of fire placed around your neck, then accept it.'”

 

Found in: The Chapters on Business Transactions
Hadith no: 2213
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
“Rasulullah SAW ruled that the fruit of a palm tree belongs to the one who pollinated it and that the wealth of a slave belongs to the one who sold him unless the purchaser stipulated a condition.”

 

Found in: The Chapters on Rulings
Hadith no: 2340
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
That the Messenger of Allah (saw) ruled: “There should be neither harming nor reciprocating harm.”

 

Found in: The Chapters on Pawning
Hadith no: 2483
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
The Messenger of Allah (saw) ruled concerning the irrigation of palm trees from streams, that the higher ground should be irrigated before the lower, and that the water should be allowed to reach the ankles, then released to flow the nearest lower ground, and so on, until all the fields were watered or until the water ran out. Daif

 

Found in: The Chapters on Pawning
Hadith no: 2488
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
The Messenger of Allah (saw) ruled concerning one, two or three date palms belonging to a man among other palm trees – when they differ concerning entitlement to the surrounding land. He ruled that the land around each of those trees, as far as their leaves reach, measured from the bottom of the tree, belongs to the owner of the tree. Hasan

 

Found in: The Chapters on Legal Punishments
Hadith no: 2540
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
That the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “Carry out the legal punishments on relatives and strangers, and do not let the fear of blame stop you from carrying out the command of Allah (SWT).” Hasan

 

Found in: The Chapters on Legal Punishments
Hadith no: 2550
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
That the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “Learn from me. Allah (SWT) has ordained for them (women) another way. (If) a virgin (commits illegal sexual intercourse) with a virgin, (the punishment is) one hundred lashes and exile for one year. (If) a Thayyib (commits adultery) with a Thayyib (the punishment is) one hundred lashes and stoning.” Sahih

 

Found in: The Chapters on Legal Punishments
Hadith no: 2603
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
That the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “Whoever among you undergoes a Hadd, his punishment has been brought forward, and it is an expiation for him otherwise his case rests with Allah.” Sahih

 

Found in: The Chapters on Blood Money
Hadith no: 2643
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
That the Prophet (saw) ruled that Hamal bin Malik Hudhali Al-Lihyani should inherit from his wife who was killed by his other wife.

 

Found in: The Chapters on Blood Money
Hadith no: 2675
Narrated: Ubadah bin Samit
“The Messenger of Allah (saw) ruled that there is no liability for injuries caused by falling into a mine or a well, nor those caused by a beast.”

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