Zainuddin Shirazi is a Sufi saint of the Deccan, belonging to the Chishti Order .
Zainuddin Shirzai’s Maqbara at Khuldabad
Syed Zainuddin’s life:
Syed Zain ud din Daud (*Hijri 701/1302 CE, † Hijri 771/1370 CE) was born at Shiraz and went to Delhi by way of Mecca. He studied under Maulana Kamaluddin of Samana, and came with him to Daulatabad. The author of the “Mayrat-al Walayeh” mentions that Zainuddin, on his arrival at Daulatabad, disapproved of the singing and dancing in the convent of Burhan uddin; but when he visited the ” tekkieh”, he was perfectly satisfied, and he and his companions were initiated in the Chishtia order. Syed Zainuddin held the office of “kazi” at Daulatabad, and in H. 737 (1336 CE) was invested with the mantle of the kaliphat, but did not actually succeed till after Burhan ud din’s death in H. 741 (1340 CE). Syed Husain has recorded all the sayings of Zainuddin in his “Hidayat ul Kalul”, and mentions that in H. 747 (1346 CE), sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq (H.699-H.752/1300-1351 CE) directed him to leave for Delhi with the other inhabitants. After the death of the sultan, his successor Firoz Shah permitted the saint to return to Daulatabad.
Zainuddin was greatly respected by the Bahmani king sultan Mahmud, who was first reproved by the saint for misgovernment. Malik raja the founder of the Faruki dynasty of Kandesh became one of Zainuddin’s disciples, and when the next sovereign Nasir ud din Nasir Khan Faruki captured Asirgarh in H.801 / 1399 CE, Zainuddin went expressly from Daulatabad to Asirgarh, to tender his congratulations. It was to commemorate this visit that the town of Zainabad, on the left bank of the Tapti, was founded after him; and Burhanpur on the opposite bank was founded about the same time in honor of Burhan ud din.
Zainuddin died in H. 771 / 1370 CE, and a handsome mausoleum was erected over his tomb at Roza, which is visited by devout Musalmans of the Dakhan.
The relics of the “parahan” (the robe of the prophet) and “taj” given to Burhan ud din on succeeding to the kaliphat, are carefully preserved in a wooden box placed in one of the apartments of Zainuddin’s darga.
Every year on the 12th Rabi-ul-awal, the sacred hair of the prophet is first shown to visitors, and then the “parahan”, the “taj”, and a few likenesses of some of the most sacred personages among the Mahomedans are exhibited.
The tombs of Azam Shah, of his Begum, and of a Mahomedan saint, are in a small enclosure to the east of Zainuddin’s mausoleum; while Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb’s tomb lies to the west. Opposite this last is a large quadrangular courtyard, having open-fronted buildings on all sides, and a “nakar-khana” or music hall at the east end. The west end is used as a school where the Koran is taught, and gives access to an inner courtyard which contains a number of graves. Facing the entrance is the shrine of Burhan ud din; and a little to the right is the last resting-place of Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I, the founder of the Hyderabad dynasty and of one of his consorts. To the left is the tomb of Nasir Jang, the son of Asaf Jah, who at one time contemplated rebellion against his father, but overcome by contrition for his conduct, performed penance at the tomb of saint Zainuddin.
The Dargah in Khuldabad attracts thousands of pilgrims each year from 12th Rabi-ul-awal, for the Urs of the saint.
Shirazi was the very
dominant Chishti figure in Khuldabad Sufis. He was the murid of Burhan
al Din Gharib and Khalifa or successor. Zayn al Din Shirazi was born in
Shiraz, Iran in 701 / 1301 and came to Delhi withhis uncles after
performing pilgrimage to Mecca. He migrated with his teacher Kamal al- Din Samana to Daulatabad. He was against the practice of samaa. After
his questioning with Burhan al Din Gharib, he was satisfied, so he
converted to Sufism. He learned all knowledge from his master. He
obtained the cloak of succession (Khirqa-i-Khilafat) on the ‘urs festival of
Nizam al Din Auliya on 17 Rabi’al Awwal 737 / 24 October 1330. The pir
murid (master disciple) relationship between Zayn al Din Shirazi and
Burhan al Din Gharib was very close. By placing Burhan al Din Gharib in
the position of the representative of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), Zayn
al Din regarded his master as holding the supreme spiritual position of his
time. “Without the protection of Shaykh al Islam Burhan al Din”, Shirazi
remarked, “How would spiritual wayfaring / suluk be possible?” 23
Shirazi received the spiritual genealogy from his master as a sign of
spiritual perfection. He studied the Quran and Sufi teachings. He also
observed the work of al Ghazali, Minhaj al Abidin. According to Hidayat
al Qulub Malfuzat, Zayn al Din referred to other Sufi classics, such as the
works of Qushayri and Hujwiri. Ones time, he said, ‘The path of our
masters is the path of the heart’. The normal requirements of Islamic law
(Fara’iz) and the Prophetic example (Sunna), in his view, establish,regulations of purity as a trial designed to release humanity from the evil
results of their free will. He always performed the worship or nawafil. 24
He recommended the following daily nawafil schedule:
The Ishraq prayer / Namaz ( at the sun rises)
The Chasht prayer (at mid morning before noon)
The Zawal prayer (at noon)
The Pishin prayer (at mid day)
The Sham prayer (at the evening)
The Bayn al ash’yn (at between evening and nightfall)
The khuftan namaz (at the bedtime)
The tahajjud namaz (at after midnight to before fazr).
These spiritual practices had to be flexible, in order to deal with the
ever-changing nature of the nafs. Shirazi also practiced fast.25 Zayn al
Din Shirazi visited to Delhi in June 1348 AD. According to Azad
Bilgrami, Zayn al Din Shirazi had been doing a daily complete recitation
of the Quran for the spirit of Nizam al Din Auliya Dargah, staying
morning’s meditations in his tomb. Firuz Shah Tughlaq met with Zayn al
Din Shirazi at Delhi on 18 Safar, 752 / 16 April, 1352. He invited him to
stay permanently at Delhi. But Shirazi returned at last to Daulatabad in
Deccan. On the way, he visited both arid al Din Ganj-i-Shakkar Dargah at
Ajodhan and Muin al-Din Chishti Dargah at Ajmer. Azad Bilgrami
discussed the Malfuzat about Zan al Din Shirazi in medieval Deccan. The
three lost Malfuzat are Dalil al-Salikin by Azizi, Hubbat al Qulub min
Maqal al Mahabub, and Hubbat al Mahabba. The last takes place after his
return from Delhi, beginning Rajab 755 / August, 1354 and going to the
end of his life.26 Shirazi died on 25 Rabi al Awwal 771 / 27 Octomber,
1369, without having any khalifa. Zayn al Din’s mazar was built opposite
that of Burhan al Din Gharib Dargah. Since he was the twenty second in
the Chishti lineage, Zayn al Din is known locally as ‘the twenty second
master’, baa’is Khaja.27According to Prof. Carl Ernst that the Chishti lineage emerged
claiming descent from Zayn al Din’s disciples Shamna Miran (d. 798 /
1398), whose tomb is in Miraj. Sufi tradition of Khuldabad said that it
shows Zayn al Din Shirazi surrounded by six disciples, Sayyid al Sadat,
Amir Hasan, Mawlana Ya’qub, Shah Kuchak, Sayyid Shamna Miran and
Sayyid Zayn Yusuf; but no Khalifa. Ernst Carl found a copy of shajara
document in collection of Nurud Din Khuldabadi at Aurangabd. Another
tradition spread in Aurangabad that, the five murid of Shirazi; named
Shams al-Din, Ya’qub Qandhari, Ya’qub, Shah Kuchak, and Qazi Hamid
al-Din ibn Qiwan Babi. He Shajara document safe at Khwaja Ahmad ibn
Khwaja Abdal, in Dargah of Zayn al Din Shirazi Bawis Khwaja, in