Nur ad-Dīn Abd ar-Rahmān Jāmī (Persian: نورالدین عبدالرحمن جامی), also known as Mawlanā Nūr al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Rahmān or Abd-Al-Rahmān Nur-Al-Din Muhammad Dashti, or simply as Jami or Djāmī and in Turkey as Molla Cami (7 November 1414 – 9 November 1492), was a Persian poet who is known for his achievements as a prolific scholar and writer of mystical Sufi literature. He was primarily a prominent poet-theologian of the school of Ibn Arabi and a Khwājagānī Sũfī, recognized for his eloquence and for his analysis of the metaphysics of mercy.His most famous poetic works are Haft Awrang, Tuhfat al-Ahrar, Layla wa -Majnun, Fatihat al-Shabab, Lawa’ih, Al-Durrah al-Fakhirah.
Jami was born in Jam, (modern Ghor Province, Afghanistan) in Khorasan. Previously his father Nizām al-Dīn Ahmad b. Shams al-Dīn Muhammad had come from Dasht, a small town in the district of Isfahan. A few years after his birth, his family migrated to Herat, where he was able to study Peripateticism, mathematics, Persian literature, natural sciences, Arabic language, logic, rhetoric and Islamic philosophy at the Nizamiyyah University His father, also a Sufi, became his first teacher and mentor.While in Herat, Jami held an important position at the Timurid court, involved in the era’s politics, economics, philosophy and religious life.
Because his father was from Dasht, Jami’s early pen name was Dashti, but later, he chose to use Jami because of two reasons he later mentioned in a poem:
مولدم جام و رشحهء قلمم
جرعهء جام شیخ الاسلامی است
لاجرم در جریدهء اشعار
به دو معنی تخلصم جامی است
- My birthplace is Jam, and my pen
- Has drunk from (knowledge of) Sheikh-ul-Islam (Ahmad) Jam
- Hence in the books of poetry
- My pen name is Jami for these two reasons.
Jami was a mentor and friend of the famous Turkic poet Alisher Navoi, as evidenced by his poems:
|“||او که یک ترک بود و من تاجیک،
هردو داشتیم خویشی نزدیک.
U ki yak Turk bud va man Tajik
Hardu doshtim kheshii nazdik
Though he was a Turk, and I am Tajik,
We were close to each other.
Afterwards, he went to Samarkand, the most important center of scientific studies in the Muslim world and completed his studies there. He embarked on a pilgrimage that greatly enhanced his reputation and further solidified his importance through the Persian world.Jami had a brother called Molana Mohammad, who was, apparently a learned man and a master in music, and Jami has a poem lamenting his death. Jami fathered four sons, but three of them died before reaching their first year. The surviving son was called Zia-ol-din Yusef and Jami wrote his Baharestan for this son.
At the end of his life he was living in Herat. His epitaph reads “When your face is hidden from me, like the moon hidden on a dark night, I shed stars of tears and yet my night remains dark in spite of all those shining stars.”There is a variety of dates regarding his death, but consistently most state it was in November 1492. Although, the actual date of his death is somewhat unknown the year of his death marks an end of both his greater poetry and contribution, but also a pivotal year of political changed where Spain was no longer inhabited by the Arabs after 781 years. His funeral was conducted by the prince of Herat and attended by great numbers of people demonstrating his profound impact.
Teachings and Sufism
In his role as Sufi shaykh, which began in 1453, Jami expounded a number of teachings regarding following the Sufi path. He created a distinction between two types of Sufi’s, now referred to as the “prophetic” and the “mystic” spirit.Jami is known for both his extreme piety and mysticism. He remained a staunch Sunni on his path toward Sufism and developed images of earthly love and its employment to depict spiritual passion of the seeker of God. He began to take an interest in Sufism at an earlier age when he received a blessing by a principal associate Khwaja Mohammad Parsa who came through town. From there he sought guidance from Sa’d-alDin Kasgari based on a dream where he was told to take God and become his companion. Jami followed Kasagari and the two became tied together upon Jami’s marriage to Kasgari’s granddaughter. He was known for his commitment to God and his desire for separation from the world to become closer to God often causing him to forget social normalities.
After his re-emergence into the social world he became involved in a broad range of social, intellectual and political actives in the cultural center of Herat. He was engaged in the school of Ibn Arabi, greatly enriching, analyzing, and also changing the school or Ibn Arabi. Jami continued to grow in further understanding of God through miraculous visions and feats, hoping to achieve a great awareness of God in the company of one blessed by Him. He believed there were three goals to achieve “permanent presence with God” through ceaselessness and silence, being unaware of one’s earthly state, and a constant state of a spiritual guide. Jami wrote about his feeling that God was everywhere and inherently in everything. He also defined key terms related to Sufism including the meaning of sainthood, the saint, the difference between the Sufi and the one still striving on the path, the seekers of blame, various levels of tawhid, and the charismatic feats of the saintsOftentimes Jami’s methodology did not follow the school of Ibn Arabi, like in the issue of mutual dependence between God and his creatures Jami stated “We and Thou are not separate from each other, but we need Thee, whereas Thou dost not need us.”
Jami created an all-embracing unity emphasized in a unity with the lover, beloved, and the love one, removing the belief that they are separated. Jami was in many ways influenced by various predecessors and current Sufi’s, incorporating their ideas into his own and developing them further, creating an entirely new concept. In his view, love for the Prophet Mohammad was the fundamental stepping stone for starting on the spiritual journey. Jami served as a master to several followers and to one student who asked to be his pupil who claimed never to have loved anyone, he said, “Go and love first, then come to me and I will show you the way.” For several generations, Jami had a group of followers representing his knowledge and impact. Jami continues to be known for not only his poetry, but his learned and spiritual traditions of the Persian speaking world. In analyzing Jami’s work greatest contribution may have been his analysis and discussion of God’s mercy towards man, redefining the way previous texts were interpreted.
Jami wrote approximately eighty-seven books and letters, some of which have been translated into English. His works range from prose to poetry, and from the mundane to the religious. He has also written works of history and science. As well, he often comments on the work of previous and current theologians, philosophers and Sufi’s. In Herat, his manual of irrigation design included advanced drawings and calculations and is still a key reference for the irrigation department. His poetry has been inspired by the ghazals of Hafiz, and his famous and beautiful divan Haft Awrang (Seven Thrones) is, by his own admission, influenced by the works of Nizami. The Haft Awrang also known as the long masnavis or mathnawis are a collection of seven poems. Each poem discusses a different story such as the Salaman va Absal that tells the story of a carnal attraction of a prince for his wet-nurse. Throughout Jami uses allegorical symbolism within the tale to depict the key stages of the Sufi path such as repentance and expose philosophical, religious, or ethical questions. Each of the allegorical symbols has a meaning highlighting knowledge and intellect, particularly of God. This story reflects Jamī’s idea of the Sufi-king as the ideal medieval Islamic ruler to repent and embark upon the Sufi path to realize his rank as God’s ‘true’ vicegerent and become closer to God.As well, Jami is known for his three collections of lyric poems that range from his youth towards the end of his life called the Fatihat al-shabab (The Beginning of Youth), Wasitat al-‘ikd (The Central Pearl in the Necklace), and Khatimat al-hayat (The conclusion of Life). Throughout Jami’s work references to Sufism and the Sufi emerge as being key topics. One of his most profound ideas was the mystical and philosophical explanations of the nature of divine mercy, which was a result of his commentary to other works.
Jami is also known for his poetry influencing and being included with Persian paintings that depict Persian history through manuscript paintings. Most of his own literature included illustrations that was not yet common for literature. The deep poetry Jami provides, is usually accompanied with enriched paintings reflecting the complexity of Jami’s work and Persian culture.
Impact of Jami’s works
Jami worked within the Tīmūrid court of Herat helping to serve as an interpreter and communicator. His poetry reflected Persian culture and was popular through Islamic East, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. His poetry addressed popular ideas that led to Sufi’s and non-Sufi’s interest in his work. He was known not only for his poetry, but his theological works and commentary of on culture. His work was used in several schools from Samarqand to Istanbul to Khayrābād in Persia as well as in the Mughal Empire. For centuries Jami was known for his poetry and profound knowledge. In the last half-century Jami has begun to be neglected and his works forgotten, which reflects an overarching issue in the lack of research of Islamic and Persian studies.
Divan of Jami
- Baharestan (Abode of Spring) Modeled upon the Gulestan of Saadi
- Diwanha-ye Sehganeh (Triplet Divans)
- Al-Fawaed-Uz-Ziya’iya.A commentary on Ibn al-Hajib’s treatise on Arab grammar Al-Kafiya. This commentary has been a staple of Ottoman Madrasas’ curricula under its author’s name Molla Cami.
- Haft Awrang (Seven Thrones) His major poetical work. The fifth of the seven stories is his acclaimed “Yusuf and Zulaykha”, which tells the story of Joseph and Potiphar’s wife based on the Quran.
- Jame -esokanan-e Kaja Parsa
- Lawa’ih A treatise on Sufism (Shafts of Light)
- Nafahat al-Uns (Breaths of Fellowship) Biographies of the Sufi Saints
- Resala-ye manasek-e hajj
- Resala-ye musiqi
- Resala-ye tariq-e Kvajagan
- Resala-ye sarayet-e dekr
- Resala-ye so al o jawab-e Hendustan
- Sara-e hadit-e Abi Zarrin al-Aqili
- Sar-rešta-yetariqu-e Kājagān (The Quintessence of the Path of the Masters)
- Shawahidal-nubuwwa (Distinctive Signs of Prophecy)
- Tajnīs ‘al-luġāt (Homonymy/Punning of Languages) A lexicographical work containing homonymous Persian and Arabic lemmata.
- Tuhfat al-ahrar (The Gift to the Noble)
Along with his works are his contributions to previous works and works that have been created in response to his new ideas.
Khaatam-ul-Sho’ara (Seal of Poets).
Aap ki wilaadat Jamaadi ul aakhir 817 Hijri (18 August 1414 A.D.) ko Jam, Khorasan (Afghanistan) me hui.
Aap ke waalid ka naam Nizaam-ud-deen Ahmad bin Shams-ud-deen Muhammad hai.
Aap ke waalid Dasht, Isfahan me rehte the.
822 Hijri (1419 A.D.) me Aap ki umr jab 5 saal thi tab Hazrat Khwaja Mohammad Paarsa rahmatullāhi alaihi Makka ki jaanib safar ke dauraan aap ke gaanv se guzre to Khwaja ne Aap ko faiz ata farmaaya.
Aap jab bade hue to aap ka pariwaar Herat (Afghanistan) aa gaya.
Herat me Aap ne Madrasa Nizaamiya me Arabi, Ilm e Nahaw, Ilm e Sharf, Adab, Ilm e Istedalaal, Falsafa, Khitaabat ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
Aap ne Hazrat Shahaab-ud-deen Mohammad Jajarmi se ta’aleem haasil ki.
Is ke baad Samarqand jaakar majeed ta’aleem haasil ki. Aap ne Hadeeṡ aur Ilme Riyaazi ki bhi ta’aleem haasil ki.
Is ke baad Aap ko Khwaja Sayyed Sa’ad-ud-deen Kashgari rahmatullāhi alaihi ne bashaarat farmai. Hazrat ke farmaan par Aap Herat waapas aaye aur un ke mureed hue aur Hazrat ki khidmat me rehkar Tasawwuf ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
856 Hijri (1452 A.D.) me Aap ne ta’aleem wa tadrees shuru kiya aur kitaaben tehreer karna shuru kiya.
860 Hijri (1456 A.D.) me Khwaja Sayyed Sa’ad-ud-deen Kashgari rahmatullāhi alaihi ka wisaal ke baad Herat me Aap ki mulaaqaat Khwaja Ubaidullāh Ahraar rahmatullāhi alaihi se hui.
Hazrat Khwaja Ubaidullāh Ahraar ke saath Aap ke bahot achhe ta’aalluq the. Aap un se mulaaqaat karke faiz haasil karne ke liye Samarqand, Merv, aur Tashkent tashreef le gaye.
Aap hamesha saadgi pasand karte the.
Aap Taimur Sultaan Abul Qaasim Baabar, Sultaan Abu Saeed, Sultaan Husain Baayqara se aap ke achhe ta’aalluq the.
Magar Aap sirf un ko mashwara aur naseehat farmaane ke liye aur ghareebo aur mohtaajo ko madad farmaane ke liye aur mazloomo ko insaaf dilaane ke liye Sultaan se ta’alluqaat rakhte.
876 Hijri (1472 A.D.) me Aap Hajj ke liye rawaana hue.
Nishapur, Simnan, aur Qazvin hote hue Aap Hamadan pahunche. Hamadan me kuchh waqt theharne ke baad Aap Baghdad tashreef laaye. Baghdad me 6 mahine qayaam karne ke baad Aap Karbala aur Najaf gaye.
877 Hijri (May 1473 A.D.) me Aap ne Hajje Baitullāh ada kiya.
Waapasi me Aap Damishq aur Halab (Aleppo) gaye.
Halab me qayaam ke dauraan Ottoman Sultaan Mohammad ne Aap ko Instanbul aane ke liye daawat di. Magar us ki bheje hu tohfe aur maal ko dekhkar waha se rawaana ho gaye aur Tabriz pahunche aur phir Herat ki jaanib rawaana hue.
Sha’abaan 878 Hijri (January 1474 A.D.) me Aap Herat waapas tashreef laaye.
Aap farmaate hain ke
Mushaahida aur Karaamat se zyada zaroori yeh hai ke soofi e kaamil ki khidmat me rehkar ALLĀH ta’ala ke wajood aur sifaat ko mehsoos kiya jaaye.
Aap ki likhi hui mash’hoor kitaaben :
(3) Deewaan e Sehganeh (Faatihat-ul-Shabaab [Opening of Youth], Waasitat-ul-Iqd [Middle of the Necklace], aur Khaatimat-ul-Hayaat [The End of Life])
(4) Haft Awrang (Silsilatul-Zahab, Sob’hat-ul-Abraar, Yousuf o Zulaikha, Salaamaan o Absaal, Tuhfat-ul-Ahraar, Layla o Majnoon, Khirad-naama-e-Iskandari)
(5) Jaame -Sukhanaan-e-Khwaja Paarsa
(10) Fawaa’id uz Ziyaa’iya fee Sharah Kaafiya (Sharahe Mulla Jaami)
(11) Naqd-ul-Nuṡooṡ fee Sharah Naqsh-ul-Fusoos
(12) Sharah-e-Hadees-e Abi Zarrin al-Aqili
(13) Al-Durrah al-Fakheerah
(14) Tajnees -ul-Lughaat
(18) Risaala-e-Sawaal o jawaab-e-Hindustan.
Aap ka nikaah Hazrat Khwaja Sayyed Sa’ad-ud-deen Kashgari ki poti se hua.
Aap ke 4 saahabzaade hain, jin me se Ziyā-ud-deen Yousuf ke ilaawa baaqi 3 ka bachpan me inteqaal ho gaya.
Aap Hazrat Khwaja Sayyed Sa’ad-ud-deen Naqshbandi Kashgari rahmatullāhi alaihi ke mureed aur khalifa hain.
Aap ke khulfa :
(1) Hazrat Khwaja Ziyā-ud-deen Yousuf rahmatullāhi alaihi
(2) Hazrat Khwaja Razi-ud-deen Abdul Ghafoor Laari rahmatullāhi alaihi
(3) Hazrat Maulana Shaheedi Qumi rahmatullāhi alaihi
(4) Hazrat Alā-ud-deen Saavaji rahmatullāhi alaihi
(5) Hazrat Mas’ood Shirvani rahmatullāhi alaihi
(6) Hazrat Haafiz-ud-deen Bayhaqi rahmatullāhi alaihi.
Aap ka wisaal 28 Rabi uṡ ṡaani 898 Hijri (28 February 1492 A.D.) ko hua.
Aap ki namaaze janaaza me bahot badi ta’adaad me log shaamil hue.
Aap ka mazaar Herat (Afghanistan) me hai.
ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Hazrat Maulana Noor-ud-deen Abdur Rahmān Jaami rahmatullāhi alaihi aur tamaam Auliya Allāh ke waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.