Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S.)

 

The son of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, son of al-Imam Zain al-`Abidin, son of al-Husayn, son of `Ali bin Abi Talib , Ja`far was born on the eighth of Ramadan in the year 83 H. His mother was the daughter of al-Qassim , whose great grandfather was Abu Bakr as-Siddiq .

He spent his life in worship and acts of piety for the sake of Allah. He rejected all positions of fame in favor of `uzla or isolation from the lower world. One of his contemporaries, `Umar ibn Abi-l-Muqdam, said, “When I look at Ja`far bin Muhammad I see the lineage and the secret of the Prophet Muhammad  united in him.”

He received from the Prophet  two lines of inheritance: the secret of the Prophet  through ‘Ali  and the secret of the Prophet  through Abu Bakr . In him the two lineages met and for that reason he was called “The Inheritor of the Prophetic Station (Maqam an-Nubuwwa) and the Inheritor of the Truthful Station (Maqam as-siddiqiyya).” In him was reflected the light of the knowledge of Truth and Reality. That light shone forth and that knowledge was spread widely through him during his lifetime.

Ja`far narrated from his father, Muhammad al-Baqir, that a man came to his grandfather, Zain al-`Abidin, and said, “Tell me about Abu Bakr!” He said, “You mean as-Siddiq?” The man said, “How do you call him as-Siddiqwhen he is against you, the Family of the Prophet ?” He replied, “Woe to you. The Prophet  called him as-Siddiq, and Allah accepted his title of as-Siddiq. If you want to come to me, keep the love of Abu Bakr and `Umar in your heart.”

Ja`far said, “The best intercession that I hope for is the intercession of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq .” From him is reported also the following invocation: “O Allah, You are my Witness that I love Abu Bakr and I love `Umar and if what I am saying is not true may Allah cut me off from the intercession of Muhammad .”

He took the knowledge of hadith from two sources: from his father through `Ali  and from his maternal grandfather al-Qassim. Then he increased his knowledge of hadith by sitting with `Urwa, `Aata, Nafi` and Zuhri. The two Sufyans, Sufyan ath-Thawri and Sufyan ibn `Uyayna, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa, and al-Qattan all narrated hadith through him, as did many others from later hadith scholars. He was a mufassir al-Qur’an or master in exegesis, a scholar of jurisprudence, and one of the greatest mujtahids (qualified to give legal decisions) in Madinah.

Ja`far  acquired both the external religious knowledge as well as the internal confirmation of its reality in the heart. The latter was reflected in his many visions and miraculous powers, too numerous to tell.

One time someone complained to al-Mansur, the governor of Madinah, about Ja`far . They brought him before Mansur and asked the man who had complained, “Do you swear that Ja`far did as you say?” He said, “I swear that he did that.” Ja`far said, “Let him swear that I did what he accused me of and let him swear that Allah punish him if he is lying.” The man insisted on his complaint and Ja`far insisted that he take the oath. Finally the man accepted to take the oath. No sooner were the words of the oath out of his mouth than he fell down dead.

Once he heard that al-Hakm bin al-‘Abbas al-Kalbi crucified his own uncle Zaid on a date palm. He was so unhappy about this that he raised his hands and said, “O Allah send him one of your dogs to teach him a lesson.” Only a brief time passed before al-Hakm was eaten by a lion in the desert.

Imam at-Tabari narrates that Wahb said, “I heard Layth ibn Sa`d say, I went on pilgrimage in the year 113 H., and after I prayed the afternoon obligatory prayer (salat al-`Asr) I was reading some verses of the Holy Qur’an and I saw someone sitting beside me invoking Allah saying ‘Ya Allah, Ya Allah…’ repeatedly until he lost his breath. He then continued by saying ‘Ya Hayy, Ya Hayy…’ until his breath was again lost. He then raised his hands and said, ‘O Allah, I have the desire to eat grapes, O Allah give me some. And my robe (jubba) is becoming so old and tattered, please O Allah grant me a new one.’ Laith bin Sa`d said that ‘He had hardly finished his words before a basket of grapes appeared in front of him, and at that time there were no grapes in season. Beside the basket of grapes there appeared two cloaks more beautiful than I had ever seen before.’ I said, ‘O my partner let me share with you.’ He said, ‘How are you a partner?’ I replied, ‘You were praying and I was saying Amin.’ Then Imam Ja`far said, ‘Then come and eat with me,’ and he gave me one of the two cloaks. Then he walked off until he met a man who said, ‘O son of the Prophet , cover me because I have nothing but these tattered garments to cover me.’ He immediately gave him the cloak that he had just received. I asked that man, ‘Who is that?’ He replied, ‘That is the great Imam, Ja`far as-Sadiq.’ I ran after him to find him but he had disappeared.”

This is only a sample of the many anecdotes and stories of the miraculous powers (karamat) of Ja`far as-Sadiq .

From his knowledge he used to say to Sufyan ath-Thawri, “If Allah bestows on you a favor, and you wish to keep that favor, then you must praise and thank Him excessively, because He said, “If you are thankful Allah will increase for you” [14:7]. He also said, “If the door of provision is closed for you, then make a great deal of istighfar (begging forgiveness), because Allah said, “Seek forgiveness of your Lord, certainly Your Lord is oft-Forgiving”[11:52]. And he said to Sufyan, “If you are upset by the tyranny of a Sultan or other oppression that you witness, say “There is no change and no power except with Allah,” (la hawla wa la quwwata illa-billah) because it is the key to Relief and one of the Treasures of Paradise.”

From His Sayings

“The Nun [letter “n”] at the beginning of Surat 68 represents the light of Pre-eternity, out of which Allah created all creations, and which is Muhammad . That is why He said in the same surat [verse 4]: ‘Truly Thou art of a sublime nature’ — that is: you were privileged with that light from pre-eternity.”

“Allah Almighty and Exalted told the lower world, “Serve the one who serves Me and tire the one who serves you.”

“Prayer is the pillar of every pious person; Pilgrimage is the Jihad of every weak one; the Zakat of the body is fasting; and the one who asks for Allah’s grants without performing good deeds is like one trying to shoot an arrow without a bow.”

“Open the door of provision by giving donation; fence in your money with the payment of zakat; the best is he who wastes not; planning is the foundation of your life, and to act prudently is the basis of intellect.”

“Whoever makes his parents sad has denied their rights on him.”

“The jurists are the trustees of the Prophet … If you find the jurists sticking to the company of the Sultans, say to them, ‘This is forbidden,’ as the jurist cannot express his honest opinion under the pressure of the Sultan’s proximity.”

“No food is better than God-fear and there is nothing better than silence; no enemy is more powerful than ignorance; no illness is greater than lying.”

“If you see something you don’t like in your brother try to find from one to seventy excuses for him. If you can’t find an excuse, say, ‘There might be an excuse but I don’t know it.’”

“If you hear a word from a Muslim which is offensive, try to find a good meaning for it. If you don’t find a good meaning for it, say to yourself, ‘I do not understand what he said,’ in order to keep harmony between Muslims.”

His Passing

Ja`far passed away in 148 H. and was buried in Jannat al-Baqi` in the same grave as that of his father, Muhammad al-Baqir, his grandfather, Zain al-`Abidin, and the uncle of his grandfather, al-Hasan ibn `Ali . He passed on the Secret of the Golden Chain to his successor, Tayfur Abu Yazid al-Bistami, more commonly known as Bayazid al-Bistami{ra}.

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Hazrat Imaam Sayyed Ja’afar al-Saadiq rahmatullāhi alaihi :
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Alqaab :
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Saadiq (Truthful), Faazil (Virtuous), Taahir (Pure).

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Aap ki wilaadat 17 Rabi’ ul Awwal 83 Hijri (20 April 702 A.D.) ko Madeena me hui.

Aap ke waalid ka naam Hazrat Imaam Sayyed Muhammad al-Baaqir bin Imaam Zainul aabideen Sayyed Ali al-Aswat rahmatullāhi alaihi aur waalida ka naam Hazrat Umme Farwah, Faatima bint Hazrat Qaasim bin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr Siddeeq rahmatullāhi alaihi hai.

Aap Husaini saadaat hain.

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Aap ne apne daada Imaam Zainul aabideen aur waalid Imaam Muhammad al- Baaqir ke paas Qur’an aur Hadeeṡ aur Tafseer ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
Aap Hadeeṡ, Tafseer Fiq’h (Islamic jurisprudence), Falsafa (Philosophy), Ilm e kalaam (Theology), Ilm e Riyaazi (Mathematics), Ilm e Hai’at wa falaq (Astronomy), Ilme Tashreeh (Anatomy), Ilm e Keemiya (Alchemy) aur dusre uloom me maahir hue.

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114 Hijri (733 A.D.) me Aap apne waalide mohtaram ke intiqaal ke baad 31 baras ki umr me Imaam bane.
Aap Aa’imma e Ahle bait ke chhathe (6th) Imaam hain.

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Aap Masjid e Nabawi me ta’aleem wa tadrees karte the.
Aap ne Tijaarat (commerce), Miraaṡ [Wiraṡat] (inheritance) aur Zakaat aur dusre bahot saare masaa’il ke hal bataaye.

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Aap ka ilm, husn e akhlaaq, sakhaawat, saadgi aur ibaadat mash’hoor hai.

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Ek din kisi shakhs ki deenaar ki thaili kho gai to us ne Hazrat Imaam Ja’afar Saadiq rahmatullāhi alaihi par shak karke iljaam lagaate hue kaha ‘Meri thaili aap hi ne churaai hai.’
Aap ne us se puchha ke ‘Us me kitni raqam thi?’
Us ne kaha ‘2000 deenaar.’
Aap ghar ke andar tashreef le gaye aur 2000 deenaar laakar use de diye.

Baad me jab us shakhs ko us ki khoi hui thaili kisi dusri jagah se mil gai. To us ne aakar pura qissa bayaan karke muafi maangi aur Aap se apni raqam waapas lene ki iltija ki. Magar aap ne farmaaya ke ‘Hum kisi ko dekar waapas nahi lete.’

Phir jab us ko logo se aap ka naam mubarak maaloom huwa to us ne behad nadaamat ka izhaar kiya.

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Ek baar Aap ne apne khaadim ko kisi kaam se bheja. Us ko waapas aane me bahot zyada der ho gai to aap us ko talaash karne ke liye nikle. Thodi door jaane par aap ne dekha ke wo khaadim ek maqaam par so raha hai aur use paseena ho raha hai. Aap use pankhe se hawa karne lage. Kuchh der baad jab wo jaaga aur Imaam ko pankha karte dekhkar sharminda hua. Aap ne us se kaha ‘Ghabhrao nahi. Magar ek baat yaad rakhna ki din ke waqt me kaam karna chaahiye aur raat ke waqt me sona chaahiye.’

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Ek baar Aap ne besh qeemati libaas pehna to ye dekhkar ek shakhs ne aap se kaha ‘Aye Aale Rasool, Itna qeemati libaas Ahle bait ko zeba nahi. Aap ne uska haath pakadkar aastin ke andar me rakha to us ne dekha ki aap ne niche taat jaisa khurdara libaas pehna tha.
Aap ne farmaaya ‘Ye khalq ke liye hai aur wo khaaliq ke liye hai.’

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Ek baar ek shakhs ne Aap se puchha ‘Kya aap mujhe Rabb ka deedaar kara sakte hain?’ Aap ne farmaaya ‘Tum sooraj ke saamne lagaatar dekhte raho.’
Wo kehne laga ‘Ye kaise mumkin hai?’ Aap ne farmaaya ‘Jab Rabb ta’ala ki makhlooq Sooraj ko dekh nahi sakte to phir sab ke khaaliq ka deedar kaise kar sakoge.’

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Ek martaba aap ne farmaaya “Ek Momin ke paas 4 cheeze honi chaahiye :
(1) Wasee (bada) ghar, (2) Achhi sawaari, (3) Achha libaas, (4) Aisa chiraagh jo us ke ghar ko roshan kar sake.”

Ek Shakhs ne arz kiya “Huzoor! Agar humare paas ye cheeze na ho to hum kya karen?”
Aap ne jawaab diya “Tum ne is ke zaahir ko dekha hai is ke baatin par gaur karo.
Wasee ghar se muraad Sabr hai, Behtareen sawaari insaan ki Aql hai, Sab se achha libaas Haya hai, Behtareen chiraag ilm hai jo Khuda ki bandagi wa ita’at sikhaata hai.”

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Aqwaal :
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(1) Agar namaaz padhne se hum gunaah aur bure kaamo se baaz aa jaayen to yeh samjho ki hamari namaaz qubool ho rahi hai.

(2) Agar tum izzat chaahte ho to Narmi ikhtiyaar karo aur agar zaleel hona chaahte ho Sakht bano.

(3) Ghussa har burai ki jad hai. Ghussa aqlmand insaan ko bhi barbaad kar deta hai.

(4) 3 nek amal Dunya me aur aakhirat me faa’ida dete hain :
Jis ne tumhare saath bura kiya ho use maaf kar do, Jo tumhe chhod gaya hai use milte raho aur jab tumhare saath jahaalat bhara bartav kiya jaaye to sabr karo.

(5) Jo chala gaya hai (ganwa diya hai) us ke baare me lagaataar socha mat karo kyun ki us ke baare me sochna tumhare dimaagh ko us (ke baare me sochne) se hata deta hai jo milne waala hai.

(6) Jo cheez ALLĀH ta’ala se hataakar dusri cheezon me mashgool kare un ko baghair kisi afsos ke tark karne ko Zohad kehte hain.

(7) Kisi neki ko maamooli na jaano, ke wo hi ALLĀH sub’hān wa ta’ala ki khushnudi ka baa’iṡ ho sakti ho.

(8) ALLĀH se agar kuchh maangna hai to Narm zubaan maango.

(9) Jab ALLĀH ta’ala tumhe koi ne’amat ata farmae aur tum use hamesha baaqi rakhna chaahte ho to us ka shukr ada karo kyun ki shukr ada karne waale ko ALLĀH ta’ala zyada ata farmaata hai.

(10) Tama (laalach) insaan ko zaleel karti hai aur us ke yaqeen ko kharaab karti hai.

(11) Ek bhuke mo’min aur us ke ghar waalo ko khaana khilaana, jis ke paas pehanne ke kapde na ho use kapde pehnaana aur us ek chehre ko bhik ki zillat se bachaana ye 70 ghulaamo ko aazaad karaana aur 70 Hajj karne se bhi zyada ALLĀH ko pasand hai.

(12) Jo shakhs kisi dusre ki parda-daari karta hai ALLĀH ta’ala us ke ghar ke posheeda haalaat ki parda-daari karta hai.

(13) Intiqaam lene ki salaahiyat hone ke bawajood bhi apne ghusse par qaabu rakhna ek azeem Jihaad hai.

(14) 4 qism ke insaan ki sohbat se bacho :
[1] Jaahil, kyun ki woh apni jahaalat se museebat me daal sakta hai.
[2] Jhut bolne waala, kyun ki woh kabhi bhi dhoka de sakta hai.
[3] Bakhil aur Laalachi, kyun ki woh apne matlab ke liye tumhe nuqsaan pahuncha sakta hai
[4] Bad-akhlaaq kyun ki woh museebat ke waqt tumhe madad nahi karega.

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Karaamat :
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(1) Ek martaba Aap Makkah mukarrama me ek gali se guzar rahe the. Aap ne dekha ki ek aurat aur us ke bache ro rahe the aur qareeb me ek gaaye murda padi thi. Aap ne us aurat se puchha ki ‘Tum aur tumhare bache kyun ro rahe hain?’ Us ne kaha ‘Huzoor! Mera aur mere bacho ka guzaara is gaaye ke doodh par tha. Yeh mar gai hai aur hum isi pareshaani aur gham ki wajah se ro rahe hain.’ Aap ne farmaaya ‘Kya tum chaahti ho ki ALLĀH ta’ala tumhari gaaye ko zinda kar de?’ Aurat ne kaha ‘Mujh par museebat padi hai aur aap aisi baat kar rahe hain.’ Imaam Ja’afar Saadiq ne Dua farmaai aur apne qadam se gaaye ko ek thokar maari aur woh zinda hokar khadi ho gai. Phir Aap tashreef le gaye.

(2) Abu Basheer bayaan karte hain ke ‘Main Madeena munawwara gaya hua tha. Ek din maine apni kaneez se sohbat ki aur ghusl ke liye jaa raha tha ki logo ka hujoom ek taraf jaate dekha to main bhi usi taraf chal diya, tamaam log Hazrate Imaam Ja’afar Saadiq ki baargaah me pahunchkar un ki ziyarat karne lage. Main bhi saamil ho gaya. Jab Hazrat ki nazar mujh par padi to farmaaya ‘Kya tumhe pata nahi ke Nabi aur nabi ki Aal ki baargaah me haalate janaabat me nahi aate?’ Ye sunkar mai hairaan reh gaya aur foran tauba ki aur aa’inda aisa na karne ka ahad kiya.

(3) Ek saahab ke dost ko Khalifa Mansoor ne qaid kar liya tha. Hajj ke mausam me maidaane Arafaat me us shakhs ki mulaaqaat Hazrat Imaam Ja’afar Saadiq se hui. Imaam ne us ke dost ke muta’alliq puchha. Us ne kaha ‘Huzoor! Wo abhi tak qaid me hai.’ Aap ne dua ki. Phir ek ghante ke baad farmaya ke ‘Khuda ki qasam. Tumhare dost lo aazaad kar diya gaya hai.’
Hajj se faarigh hokar jab wo shakhs waapas aaya to apne dost se puchha ke ‘Tumhari rihaai kis din hui?’ Us ne kaha ‘Arfaa ke din jab Haaji log maidaane Aarfaat me hote hain usi din mujhe chhod diya gaya.’

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Pariwaar :
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Aap ki 2 biwiya aur 5 saahabzaade aur 3 saahabzaadiya hain.

(1) Bibi Faatima bint Husain Asram bin Hasan Muṡanna se
2 bete – Ismāeel al-Arij aur Abdullāh al-Aftaah.

(2) Hameeda Khaatoon se
3 bete – Moosā al-Kaazim, Muhammad al-Dibaaj aur Ali al-Uraizi.
3 betiya – Faatima, Umme Farwah, Asma.

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Aap ke shaagirdo me Imaam Abu Haneefa Nomaan ibn Ṡaabit, Imaam Maalik bin Anas, Hazrat Sufyaan Ṡauri, Hazrat Jaabir ibn Hayyaan, Qaazi Sukuni aur Qaazi Abul Bakhtari mash’hoor hain.

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Aap ko Hazrat Imaam Sayyed Mohammad al-Baaqir rahmatullāhi alaihi se ‘Alawi Husaini’ silsile ki aur Hazrat Qaasim bin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr Siddeeq rahmatullāhi alaihi se ‘Siddeeqi’ silsile ki Khilaafat mili hai.

Aap ke khulfa :
(1) Hazrat Imaam Sayyed Moosā al-Kaazim rahmatullāhi alaihi,
(2) Hazrat Khwaja Baayazeed Bastami rahmatullāhi alaihi.

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Umayya khalifa Hishaam ibn Abdul Malik ki hukoomat ke dauraan zulm ke khilaaf jab logo ne baghaawat karne ka faisla kiya to Aap ne un ko samjhaaya ki jung ke ilaawa dusra raasta ho to pehle wo aajmana chahiye.
Logo ne khalifa banaane ke liye kaha to Aap ne farmaaya ‘Mujhe hukoomat ki zaroorat nahi. Ye tamaam mulk ALLĀH ta’ala ka hai aur mere liye ye kaafi hai ki ALLĀH ta’ala ne mujhe izzat aur logo ke dilo par hukoomat ata farmai.’

Umayya hukoomat ke khilaaf awaam ki jung me aap ke chacha Hazrate Zaid, Yahyā ibne Zaid aur dusre kai rishtedaar aur azeez shaheed hue aur ba’az ko giraftaar karke saza di gai.

Is ke baad Hishaam ne Imaam ko giraftaar karke Damishq me rakha.

132 Hijri (750 A.D.) me as-Saffah ne Marwaan ibn Muhammad ko haraakar Abbaasi hukoomat shuru ki.
as-Saffah ne Imaam ko giraftaar karke nazar qaid karke rakha.

136 Hijri (754 A.D.) me al-Mansoor baadshaah bana to us ne Saadaat se bughz ki wajah se Aap ki mehfil aur taqreer par nazar rakhna shuru kiya aur logo ko Aap se milne se rokne laga.
Phir Imaam ko giraftaar karke Samarra (Iraq) me nazar qaid karke rakha.
Phir kuchh arse baad Aap ko Madeena laaya gaya.
Aakhir me al-Mansoor ke hukm se Aap ko zeher diya gaya.

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Aap ka wisaal 15 Rajab 148 Hijri (14 December 765 A.D.) ko Jum’aa ke roz hua.

Aap ka mazaar Jannatul Baqi, Madeena munawwara me hai.

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ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Hazrat Imaam Sayyed Ja’afar al-Saadiq rahmatullāhi alaihi aur Ahle bait ke waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.
Aameen.