|Name: Ali bin Muhammad (a.s.)
Mother: Samana al-Maghribiya
Kunniyat (Patronymic): Abu al-Hasan al Askari
Laqab (Title): Al Hadi
Birth: He was born at Madina in the year 212 A.H.
Martyrdom: He died of poison in 254 A.H. at Samarrah (Sarmanra) in Iraq and is buried there.
Parents, Birth & Childhood
Imam Ali un Naqi (a.s.)’s mother was a very pious lady who spent her whole life fasting. The 10th Imam has said that his mother was one of the ladies of paradise and one of those from ‘Ahlul Haqq’ (people of truth).
Imam Ali un Naqi (a.s.) became an Imam at the age of 8 years. The khalifa wrote to the governor of Medina asking him to send the young Imam to a person called Junaydi for tutorage (the governor of Madina was threatened that if he did not do this than the people of Madina would be annihilated). Junaydi was a well-known poet of that time and ‘anti – Ahlulbayt’ and was 80 years old. The Khalifa felt that if this was done than anything that the Imam did or said could be attributed to Junaydi i.e. it was taught to Imam by Junaydi. When Junaydi was once asked about the progress of his student he said :
“I am the student and he is the teacher. I now know what knowledge is. What I say is because of what I have been taught by Imam”.
The Khalifa’s plan had failed yet again.
For a while the Khalifa left Imam in peace and freedom as they were engrossed in sorting out their own affairs (Removing the Iranians from power; adding the Turks and establishing power in Samarra). Imam used the time to open Madrasas and the atmosphere in the mosque of the Prophet was once again like in the time of the 6th Imam Ja’fer As-Sadiq (a.s.)
Imamate – His Life and Works
Imam Ali un Naqi (as) served the longest period of Imamate (besides the 12th Imam) – 34 years which can be divided into two parts – 17 years of freedom and 17 years under arrest.
In 234 A.H. came one of the most tyrannical rulers of the Abbasid Khilafate – Mutawakkil. He ruled with tyranny, killing, looting and terrorising especially those who were the followers of Ahlulbayt. Mutawakkil is also the one who ordered the desecration of the grave of Imam Husayn (a.s.) wanting to remove Imam’s body and burn it (He did not succeed). He tried running water over the grave so no traces of the grave would remain but was unsuccessful. He ordered that all those wanting to visit Kerbala would have their fingers cut off, then hand and feet cut then only be able to go if one other from the family was killed. Imam still asked Shias to visit Kerbala. When Mutawakkil saw that all had failed and it did not discourage the visits than he banned all visits to Kerbala completely.
Mutawakkil called Imam to Samarra. Imam was called under the pretext of respect and love towards him. Imam was aware of Mutawakkil’s intentions but went knowing that this would be an opportunity to show the Turks too what true Islam was. On arriving in Samarra the Turkish spies sent with Imam were amazed at Imam’s knowledge of the Turkish language when he had never visited the Turks before.
It was an opportunity for Imam to prepare the Mu’mineen in Samarra for ghaibat. Imam was put up in an Inn which was meant for beggars, destitute and criminals. From this Inn he was removed and put into the custody of an evil man called Zarraqui (who changed to be an avid supporter of Imam) and then a man called Seyyid.
Mutawakkil knew of the progress Imam had made in Madina in 14 years of spreading knowledge. In fact he himself had to ask Imam when the Caesar of Rome wrote to him (Mutawakkil) to ask him:
“I have heard that there is a chapter of a divinely revealed book which does not contain the letters ( t d k S X ) and if this chapter is recited it grants the reciter paradise! I would like to know which chapter and in which book and why these letters are not present”.
Mutawakkil’s ‘Ulema’ were confused and eventually Mutawakkil turned to Imam. Imam told him that the chapter was Suratul Fatiha in the Qur’an and the above letters were not present because it was a chapter of mercy and each of the above letters represented words of Adhab (punishment) or Ghadhab (anger of Allah).
e.g.*- jaheem (hell), *- khusr (loss), *- zaqqum (fruit of Jahannam)
Mutawakkil seeing that he could not humiliate Imam in any way, he announced his arrival in Samarra as Ibnur Ridha (son of 8th Imam) and subjected him to things such as handing him a glass of wine in his hands in his court, asking him to sing, making him run in front of his (Mutawakkil’s) carriage..etc. Imam Hasan Al-Askery (a.s.) was placed under separate house arrest than his father at the young age of 5 years as Mutawakkil did not want the birth of the 12th Imam.
Whilst under house arrest Imam Ali An-Naqi (a.s.) arranged for the coming of Bibi Nargis to Samarra and for her to be well versed in Fiqh by his learned sister Bibi Hakima.
Imam spent his life making the imminent ghaibat of the 12th Imam easier. Soon after, Mutawakkil was killed by his own son who could not withstand the behaviour of his father.
After Mutawakkil’s death his son Muntasir was the successor and he lifted the restrictions of visiting Kerbala. His rule was unlike his father’s tyranny but remained in power for only 6 months and died at the age of 25 years. Then came Mustan Billah (Ahmed bin Mo’tasam) followed by Mo’taz Billah who continued his tyranny on Imam and his followers.
Rulers of the Time
The thirtythree years of imamate of Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi coincided with the caliphate of the following six caliphs Mu‘tasim bin Hârun, Wâthiq bin Mu‘tasim, Mutawakkil bin Mu‘tasim, Muntasir bin Mutawakkil, Musta‘in, and Mu‘tazz bin Mutawakkil.
Wâthiq bin Mu‘tasim had a very promiscuous lifestyle, and had no time to harass the Shi‘as and the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt. During his caliphate, a large number of the descendants of Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) had settled in Samarra, the ‘Abbasid capital. But the peaceful days for the ‘Alids and the Imam did not last long. After Wâthiq, his brother Mutawakkil, came to power. Mutawakkil was the most cruel of all the ‘Abbasid caliphs; he is comparable to Yazîd bin Mu‘âwiyah of the Umayyads.
Mutawakkil, on the one hand, started promoting the Shâfi‘i madhhab in order to distract the masses away from the Ahlul Bayt. And, on the other hand, he intensified harassment of the Shi‘as. He had such hatred for the Ahlul Bayt that in 236 A.H. he ordered the grave of Imam Husayn (a.s.) be leveled to the ground, and that the surrounding area be transformed into farmlands so that no trace of the grave be left. This all was done to stop the Shi‘as from visiting (ziyârat) the graves of Imam Husayn (a.s.) and the other martyrs of Karbala. But when Allâh wishes to protect His “light” no human can do anything about it!
The attempt to erase all traces of Imam Husayn’s grave angered many Muslims; people starting writing anti-‘Abbâsid slogans on the walls. Opposition poets also expressed their feelings on this issue. A famous poem against Mutawakkil is given below: By Allâh, if the Umayyids unjustly killed Husayn, son of the Prophet’s daughter, his cousins have committed a similar crime for I swear that Husayn’s grave has been erased.
It seems that they regret for not participating in the massacre, so they now go after the grave!
Mutawakkil enjoyed torturing the followers of the Ahlul Bayt; even the persons appointed by him as governor in Medina and Mecca were instructed to prevent people from being kind and courteous towards the Ahlul Bayt. In 234 A.H., Mutawakkil ordered Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi (a.s.) to be brought from Medina to Samarra where he was placed in a house next to the caliph’s garrison. The Imam lived under constant surveillance until Mutawakkil was murdered by his own troops at the instigation of his own son, Muntasir.
Muntasir bin Mutawakkil reversed the policies of his father towards the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.); he was kind and generous to them; he returned the property of Fadak to the descendants of Imams Hasan and Husayn (a.s.). Unfortunately his caliphate did not last for more than six months when he died in 248 A.H.
Musta‘in came to power after Muntasir and continued the oppressive policies of his ancestors. But soon his own Turkish troops rebelled against him and pledged allegiance to Mu‘tazz bin Mutawakkil whom they rescued from prison. Finally, Musta‘in was killed and Mu‘tazz become the caliph.
It was during the reign of Mu‘tazz bin Mutawakkil that Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi was martyred by poisoning.
Mo’taz arranged for the poisoning of Imam through an ambassador and Imam was martyred on Monday 3rd Rajab 254 a.h. nobody except Imam Hasan Askery (a.s.) was present at the time of his death. he gave his father ghusl and kafan and wept bitterly.
Children of Imam Ali Naqi (a.s.)
It is reported that Imam had 5 children
Imam Hasan Al-Askery (a.s.) the Eleventh Imam.
Muhammad (known as Syed Muhammad – Tomb near tomb of Balad).
Hazrat Imaam Ali al-Haadi an-Naqi ramatullāhi alaihi :
Aap ki wilaadat 2 Rajab 212 Hijri (27 September 827 A.D.) ko Madeena me hui.
Aap ke waalid ka naam Hazrat Imaam Muhammad al-Taqi bin Imaam Ali al-Riza rahmatullāhi alaihi aur waalida ka naam Sumaanah hai.
Aap Husaini saadaat hain.
Aap bachpan se bahot hi zaheen the.
Aap ke waalid ki shahaadat ke baad aap Imaam bane.
Aap Aa’imma e Ahle bait ke 10we Imaam hain.
Aap ke 3 saahabzaade hain :
(1) Imaam Hasan al-Askari,
(3) Abu Abdullāh Ja’afar al-Zaki.
Aap Masjid e Nabawi me logo ko taaleem e deen karte.
Aap talba ko aur haajatmando ko imdaad karte rehte the.
Aap ki sakhaawat aur ilm ki wajah se log aap ki bahot izzat karte the.
Ek baar ek shakhs ke upar bahot qarz ho gaya. Aap ne use bulakar 30000 dirham diye. Us ne kaha ‘Huzoor, Mera qarz sirf is raqam ka ek tihai ya’ni 10000 dirham hi hai.’ Aap ne farmaaya ‘Theek hai. Magar ab tum wo puri raqam apne paas rakho aur baaqi raqam apne ghar walo ke liye kharch karna taake phir se tumhe qarzdaar na hona pade.’ Ye sunkar wo sab shakhs adab ke saath aap ke qadmo me gir gaya.
Ek martaba baadshaah al-Mutawakkil ke darbaar me Imaam Ali al-Haadi ne farmaaya ki ‘Darindo par Aale Rasool ka gosht haraam hai.’
Jab ye guftagu chal rahi thi to waha baithe kuchh darbaariyo ne kaha ‘Is baat ki aazma’ish Imaam par hi honi chaahiye ki Aale Rasool ko darinde khaate hain ya nahi.’
Chunanche baadshaah ne kaha ‘Aap sher-khaane me tashreef le jaaye to logo ko waaqai maaloom ho jaaye ki Aale Rasool ka gosht darindo par haraam hai.’
Chunanche aap sher-khaane me (jis me sher qaid the) tashreef le gaye aur darwaaza band kar diya gaya aur baadshaah apne baala khaane me baithkar dekhne laga.
Jab aap shero ke paas gaye to sher aap ko chhukar aap ke ird gird phirne lage phir aazeezi aur adab ke saath ghutne tek kar baith gaye.
Madeena ke governor Abdullāh bin Muhammad ne Abbaasi khalifa al-Mutawakkil bin al-Mu’atasim ko kaha ki ‘Imaam maal jama karke hathiyaar jama kar rahe hain aur us ke khilaaf baghaawat karenge.’
Aap ko jab is baat ka pata chala to aap ne al-Mutawakkil ko khat likhkar bataaya ki ‘Us ko jo baat bataai gai hai hai wo galat hai aur Ahle bait se bughz ki wajah se Abdullāh bin Muhammad ne ye sab kiya hai.’
al-Mutawakkil ne aap ko jawaabi khat me likha ‘Maine governor ko bartaraf kar diya hai aur aap Samarra mere paas aa jaao taake aap ki hifaazat kar saken.’
Aap ne jab ye khat padha to Aap samajh gaye ki asl me ye sab mujhe Madeena nikaalne ke liye ho raha hai. Magar Aap jaante the agar main nahi gaya to wo zabar dasti le jaaya jaayega.
Jab al-Mutawakkil ke hukm se Yahya bin Harsama ne Madeena aakar Aap ke ghar ki talaashi li to use Qur’an shareef aur deeni kitaabo ke ilaawa kuchh na mila.
Magar wo al-Mutawakkil ke hukm se Imaam ko Madeena se Samarra ke liye apne saath lekar nikla. Raaste me jab kaafila Baghdad pahuncha to Yahya bin Harsama ki mulaaqat Baghdad ke governor Isaaq bin Ibrāheem Zahiri se hui. Us ne tamaam baat sunkar use mashwara diya ‘Agar tum Samarra jaakar Imaam ke baare me galat baat bataoge aur agar al-Mutawakkil Imaam ko qatl kar dega to is gunaah ke zimmedar tum honge.’
Samarra pahunchkar Yahyā bin Harsama ne al-Mutawakkil ke baare me achhi baaten batai aur kaha ‘Imaam ke ghar me aisi koi cheez nahi mili hai jo Abdullāh ke iljaam ko sahi saabit kare.’
Is se al-Mutawakkil ko itminaan hua aur Imaam se mila. Phir bhi us ne Imaam ko Samarra me ek makaan me rehne ke liye kaha aur is tarah 232 Hijri me aap ko pariwaar ke saath nazar qaid karke rakha.
Is ke baad Imaam ke husn e akhlaaq se Aap ki izzat badhne lagi to al-Mutawakkil ne ek jalsa munaaqid kiya jis me bahot saare ulema aur fuqaha ko bulaaya aur Ibne Sakkit ko aise mushkil sawaal tayyar karne ko kaha jin ke jawab Imaam na de sake take wo unhe zaleel kar sake.
Jab jalse me Ibne Sakkit ne Imaam se wo sawaal puchhe to aap ne uske behtar jawaab diye. Phir al-Mutawakkil ne Imaam se puchha ‘Kya mere bete Hasan wa Husain ibn Ali se zyada mohtaram hain?’ Aap ne farmaaya ‘Hazrate Ali ka ghulaam Qambar bhi tumhare beto se zyada mohtaram hai.’
Is ke baad al-Mutawakkil ne logo ko Imaam ko tohfe dene se mana farmaaya ke kahin us maal se Imaam hathiyaar jama karke jung na kare.
Aur kai baar apne sipaahiyo ko bhejkar Aap ke makaan ki talaashi leta raha. Magar har baar aap ke ghar me se koi aisi cheez nahi mili.
Imaam ki izzat aur shohrat se pareshaan hokar al-Mutawakkil ne kuchh ghair-muslim ko maal dekar Imaam ko qatl karne ke liye kaha. Magar jab us ne Imaam ko pehredaaro ke saath aate dekha to apna iraada badal diya aur un shakhso ko rok diya.
Is ke baad 247 Hijri (861 A.D.) me al-Mutawakkil ne apne afsaro aur tamaam mash’hoor logo ke liye farman jaari kiya ki ‘Jab wo apne sawaari par ho to tamaam logo ko nange pair chalna hoga.’
Jab us ka zulm badhne laga to Imaam ne Qur’an ki aayat tilaawat ki ‘Tum 3 din apne ghar me maza (lutf) le lo, ye waada hai jo jhutlaaya nahi jaayega.’
Is ke 3 din baad al-Mutawakkil ko us ke bete al-Muntasir ne turk hukoomat ke kuchh shakhs ke saath milkar qatl kar diya.
Is ke baad al-muntasir ke zamaane me kuchh waqt ke liye aap ko riha kiya.
Magar us ke inteqaal ke baad al-Mustaeen aur al-Mu’atazz ke zamaane me phir se aap ko nazar qaid kar liya.
al-Mu’atazz ke zamaane me aap ko qaatil zeher diya gaya. Jis ki wajah se aap ko shadeed dard hone laga aur aap ki shahaadat hui.
Aap ne pehle hi se apne liye apne makaan me ek qabr tayyar ki thi.
Aap ke saahabzaade Imaam Hasan al-Askari ne tajheez ke baad namaaz e janaaza padhkar aap ki wasiyat ke mutaabiq aap ko usi qabr me dafn kiye.
Aap ka wisaal 3 Rajab 254 Hijri (28 June 868 A.D.) ko hua.
Aap ka mazaar Samarra (Iraq) me hai.
ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Imaam Ali al-Haadi al-Naqi rahmatullāhi alaihi aur Ahle bait ke waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.