Hazrat Abu najeeb Suharwardi r.a

 

sufi

Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi (Persian: ابوالنجیب عبدالقادر سهروردی)a (1097–1168) was a Sunni[1] [Persian][2][3] Sufi who was born in Sohrevard near Zanjan and founded the Suhrawardiyya Sufi order.

He studied Islamic law in Baghdad, then set up a retreat by the river Tigris, where he gathered disciples, which eventually came to be the Sufi order of Suhrawardiyya.

His paternal nephew Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi expanded the order.

His name is also sometimes transcribed as Diya al-din Abu ‘n-Najib as-Suhrawardi.

Suhrawardiyya is the name of a Sufi order founded by Iranian Sufi Diya al-din Abu ‘n-Najib as-Suharwardi (1097-1168).

He was a murid of Ahmad al-Ghazali (RA), who was a brother of Imam AbuHamid al-Ghazali.c. 545 A.H. he was teaching Shafi’i fiqh atAl-Nizamiyya of Baghdad Academy. His surviving work is called KitabAdab Al-Muridin.Many Sufis from all over the Islamic world joined the order under the founder’s nephew Hazrat Shihab ad-din Abu Hafs ‘Umar(RA) (1145-1234),who was sent as emissary to the court of Khwarizm Shah in Bukhara by the Khalifa in Baghdad. His son is buried in Tashkent. Later the Order spread into India through Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari (RA) and Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya (RA). The Suhrawardiyya trace their spiritual genealogy to Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (A.S) through Junayd Baghdad and al-Ghazali (RA).

 

Suhrawardiya School

Suhrawardiyya is the name of a Sufi order founded by Iranian Sufi Diya al-din Abu ‘n-Najib as-Suharwardi (1097-1168).
He was a murid of Ahmad al-Ghazali (RA), who was a brother of Imam AbuHamid al-Ghazali.c. 545 A.H. he was teaching Shafi’i fiqh atAl-Nizamiyya of Baghdad Academy. His surviving work is called KitabAdab Al-Muridin.Many Sufis from all over the Islamic world joined the order under the founder’s nephew Hazrat Shihab ad-din Abu Hafs ‘Umar(RA) (1145-1234),who was sent as emissary to the court of Khwarizm Shah in Bukhara by the Khalifa in Baghdad. His son is buried in Tashkent. Later the Order spread into India through Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari (RA) and Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya (RA).
The principal role in the formation of a conservative ‘new piety’ and in the initiation of urban commercial and vocational groups into mysticism was played by the Suhrawardiyya silsila. Suhrawardiyya originated in Iraq but succeeded only in India to take shape as afraternity with its infrastructure, internal hierarchy of members and cloisters and a single centre in Multan and Cutch. The Suhrawardiyya Isa strictly Sunni order, guided by Shafi`i madhab. The Suhrawardiyya trace their spiritual genealogy to Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (A.S.) through Junayd Baghdad and al-Ghazali (RDA).
Shaikh Shihab ad-din Abu Hafs Umar al-Suharwardi (RA), took recourse to active life, renounced reclusion and excessive fasting, maintained close contacts with the authorities, and undertook diplomatic missions and political settlement of conflicts. His luxurious cloister in Baghdad, with gardens and bath houses, was specially built for him by Caliph an-Nasir, on whose behalf Abu Hafs travelled as an ambassador to the Ayyubid Sultan Malik al-Adil I of Egypt, to Khwarizm-Shah Muhammad of Bukhara and to Kaiqubad I, the Seljuk ruler of Konya.
Shaikh Abu Hafs Umar al-Suharwardi (RDA), the author of “Awarifal-Ma’arif”, directed his disciples Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-PoshBukhari & Shaikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya of Multan (1182-1262 AD) to make Multan the center of his activity. Iltutmish appointed him as”Shaikhul Islam” after the invasion of Multan and topple its ruler, Qabacha. During the Mongol invasion he became the peace negotiotor between invaders and Muslim army.
Another Suharwardi, Hazrat Fakharuddin Iraqi buried at Konya, Turkey, received formal initiation into the Sufi way under ShaykhBaha’uddin Zakariya; Hazrat Fakharuddin Iraqi lived in Multan for 25 years as one of the Suharwardi, composing poetry. As ShaykhBaha’uddin (RA) was dying, he named Hazrat Fakhruddin ‘Iraqi (RA) to be his successor.
When it became known that Hazrat Fakharuddin Iraqi had been named head of the Suharwardi Order, some in the order became jealous and denounced him to the Sultan who sought to have ‘Iraqi arrested. Hazrat Fakharuddin Iraqi fled the area with a few close companions, and they eventually made their way to Makkah and Medina. Later they moved north to Konya in Turkey. This was Konya at the time of Rumi. ‘Iraqi often listened to Rumi teach and recite poetry, and later attended Rumi’s funeral.
Although Hazrat Fakharuddin Iraqi was nominally the head (in exile) of a large and respected Sufi order, he humbly became the disciple of another Sufi master—Hazrat Sadruddin Qunawi(RA), who also lived in Konya at the time. Hazrat Sadruddin Qunawi (RA) was the son-in-law of the recently deceased Sufi philosopher Shaikh Ibn’Arabi (RA). Although less known in the West today Hazrat Sadruddin Qunawi(RA) was perhaps the pre-eminent Sufi teacher in Konya at the time, even better known than his neighbor Rumi. Hazrat Fakharuddin Iraqi was deeply devoted Hazrat Sadruddin Qunawi (RA) and to the teachings of Ibn ‘Arabi (RA). It was a series of speeches Hazrat Sadruddin Qunawi(RA) delivered on the esoteric meaning of Ibn ‘Arabi’s great works that inspired Hazrat Fakharuddin Iraqi (RA)to compose his own masterpiece of commentary and poetry named theLama’at or Divine Flashes.
When Fakhruddin ‘Iraqi died he was buried near Ibn ‘Arabi’s (RA)tomb.
Baha-ud-din Zakariya’s(RA) successor then was his son Shaikh Sadruddin‘Arif(RA). His disciple, Amir Husayn (RA), the author of “Zad-al-Musafirin”, wrote several works on the doctrine Wahdat al-Wujud.Shaikh Arif’s (RA). Son and caliph, Shaikh Ruknuddin. was highly respected by the Delhi Sultans from ‘Alauddin Khilji to Muhammad IbnTughlaq.
After the death of Shaikh Ruknuddin (RA) the Suhrawardiyya silsiladeclined in Multan but became popular in other provinces like Kutch, Gujarat, Punjab, Kashmir and even Delhi. Suharwardiya order of Sufism became popular in Bengal (Contemporary Relevance of Sufism, 1993,published by Indian Council for Cultural relations).It was popularized and revitalized by Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-PoshBukhari(RA) known as Makhdum Jahaniyan, the world traveler. He was puritan and strongly objected the Hindu influences to Muslim social and religious practices.
Another contemporary mystic who is worthy of mention was Shaikh Sharfuddin Yahya Manairi. (d. 1380 AD). He belonged to the Firdausia order, a branch of Suhrawardiyya. He compiled several books, i.e. “Fawaid al-Muridin”, “Irshadat al-Talibin”,”Rahat al-Qulub”, etc.
Another al-Suhrawardi was the well known Shihabuddin Yahya as-Suhrawardi (1153 – 1191) who was a shia and founder of the Illuminationist school.

The Suhrawardi school is characterised by its strong commitment to Sunni orthodoxy. Suhrawardiya has its origins in the teaching of Diya al-din Abu ‘n-Najib as-Suhrawardi (1097-1168). After studying Islamic law in Baghdad Abu n-Najib went to live by the river Tigris where he set up a retreat and gathered a group of disciples. The ordered became particularly influential through the work of Abu ‘n-Najib’s nephew, Shihab ad-din Abu Hafs ‘Umar (1145-1234). Shihab ad-din acquired the support of the caliph and attracted sufis from all over the world to hear him teach.

According to Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi (r.a), the Sufi must greet and honour all guests, and share with them whatever pure food or drink is available without fuss or ceremony. The guest, in turn, should sit where placed by the host, and express appreciation.

After the death of Najib al-Din, the tariqa was substantially developed by his nephew, the hugely influential Sahib al-Din Abu Hafs Umar ibn Abd’allah Suhrawardi [1234 CE]. Sahib al-Din Abu Hafs studied under Najib al-Din, and wrote the treatise the Awaarif al-Maarif, which became even more popular and widely read, as it enhanced the influence of the Suhrawardiyya in the sub-continent. The Awaarif al-Maarif is considered one of the real classics of tasawwuf today.  

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