THE FOUNDER OF THE FIRST CONSTITUTION
When Prophet Muhammad migrated to Medina, he formed a political alliance with the Jews, Christians and other nonMuslim minorities residing in Medina. He drafted a formal agreement aimed at bringing an end to the bitter cycles of violence between the conflicting clans. This document, famously known as the ‘Constitution of Medina, became the first written constitution in human history. I
I Set forth by Abū ‘Ubayd al-Qasim b. Sallām in Kitāb al-Amwāl, pp. 166, 260 $328, 518. Humayd b. Zanjawayh in Kitāb al-Amwāl, 1:331 $508; 2:466 $750. al-Bayhaqī in al-Sunan al-Kubrā, 8:106 S16147. Ibn Hisham in al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 3:31. Ibn Sayyid al-Nās in ‘Uyūn al-Athar, 1:227. Ibn Taymiyya in al-Ṣārim al-Maslūl ‘alā Shātim al-Rasûl, 2:129. •al-Ṣāliḥī in Subul al-Huda wa al-Rishad, 3:555.