Quran and Modern Science :BLACK HOLES: MIGHTY OATH

75- So, I swear by the place where the stars fall.
76- And that is indeed a mighty oath, if you but knew.
56- Al-Waqiah The Inevitable, 75-76


The expression “place where… fall” (mawqi) also mentioned in the
sura, The Cave (Kehf), verse 53, means the place where the sinners
fall, i.e., hell. The root of this word is “WaQa’Aa” and it means the
action of falling, a happening and an incidence.
Stars perpetuate their existence with hydrogen bombs exploding in
them. During these explosions a portion of matter is transferred into
energy, emitting heat of immeasurably high temperature. Conversion
of one gram of matter into energy may be obtained by burning two
million kilograms of coal. For instance, in our sun-which is but a star
of medium size-four billion kilograms of matter are converted into
energy every second. A star uses but a small portion of its matter as
fuel, and when this fuel is exhausted, it dies off. The lifetime that Allah
designed for the living had also been apportioned for the stars. As new
stars are born somewhere in the universe, the old ones bid farewell, as
if saying: “We pass away, but our Creator is for ever abiding and his
Creation is perpetual.”


FALLING OF STARS AND MIGHTY OATH

The place where the stars fall is stressed by an oath coupled with the
epithet “mighty.” We shall see incommensurately great mathematical
figures in connection with the death of stars whose fuel is exhausted. The great numerical values in the universe come about at the death of
stars to which reference is made with the following words in the
Quran, “And that is indeed a mighty oath, if you but knew.”
Everybody versed in physics knows that one of the most interesting phenomena in the universe is the black hole that comes about in
the wake of the death of massive stars whose magnitudes are greater
than three times the size of our sun. Having depleted their fuel, these
cosmic bodies die, collapsing inward upon themselves. The giant stars
that contract possess a great gravitational force. This force is so
immense that even light, with its velocity of approximately 300,000
km/sec, cannot escape it; these black holes absorb even the light that
passes by. Later on, a great many planets and stars are attracted by this
gravitational force. Black holes also constitute “the place where the
stars fall.” The existence of black holes is deduced from the fact that
they attract as whirlpools the matter of other nearby stars and emit Xrays, swallowing all the lights and stars around. The most interesting
studies of Stephen Hawking are on black holes. Stephen Hawking discovered the radiation that came to be called the Hawking Radiation
by establishing the fact that a black hole could emit radiation while
conforming to the physical laws of energy.
The black holes formed by the collapse of stars by their gravitational force are in perfect conformity with verses 75-76 of the sura,
The Inevitable. At the time of the descent of the Quran, the end of a
star by being transformed into a black hole was something unknown.
A star turning into a black hole and the stages it goes through are very
interesting phenomena.
Stars that run out of fuel do not immediately collapse. They grow
in size at first, as if inflated. Their temperature, around 15 million
degrees, rises up to 100 million degrees. They are first transformed
into red giants or super giants. The area covered by a super giant is so
vast that it can easily contain more than sixty million suns. The
immensity of these numerical values is reminiscent of the magnitudes
indicated in 76th verse of the sura.
Some of the supernovas contract and turn into white dwarf stars
whose mass equal the size of a human being but weigh 10 million
kilograms. Still greater stars become neutron stars (pulsars), stars supposed to form in the final stage of the stellar evolution; these consist
of a super dense mass mainly of neutrons having a strong attractive
force. The matter in the neutron stars is extremely dense. Just to give you an idea, a teaspoonful of this matter would weigh one billion
tons.
While all these spectacular events are taking place, we, on our planet, continue to sleep, run and talk, quite unaware of them. So is our
life: rendered possible by forces beyond our ken.

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