Masjid Mawlana Yaqub Charkhi
The great Naqshbandi shaykh and student of Khwaja Baha al-Din Naqshband, Hazrat Mawlana Yaqub Charkhi (762-851 AH) was not only a Sufi master but also a reputed Islamic scholar.
His full name was Yaqūb bin Usmān bin Mahmūd Ghaznavi Charkhi. He was born around 762 AH (1360/61) and passed away to the eternal world on Saturday 5 Safar 851 AH (22 April 1447). His shrine, according to some research scholars, lies 5 kilometers West of Dushanbe the capital of Tajikistan.
He was a direct disciple of the founder of the Naqshbandi tariqah, Khwājā Muhammad Bahā’uddīn Naqshband Bukhārī, and had also received khilafah from him. However, after the shaykh’s demise, he also benefited from the spiritual blessings of Khwājā Alā’uddīn Attār who was the spiritual successor of Khwaja Naqshband.
His son Maulana Yūsuf Charkhi was also a great Sufi. However his chief successor was Khwaja Ubayd-Allah Ahrār (806-895 AH).
One day Maulana Yaqūb asked his student Khwaja Ahrar that I have heard that Shaykh Zain ad-Dīn Khwāfī (one of his earlier colleagues) does interpretations of dreams and (spiritual) visions. Is that true? Khwaja Ahrar replied, “Yes my master, its true”. Then he went into a state of unconsciousness. Later he raised his head and recited following verses.
چون غلام آفتابم همه از آفتاب گويم، نه شبم نه شب پرستم که حديث خواب گويم
(As I am a servant of the sun, I speak all of the sun. I am neither night nor a night-worshiper that I talk of dream stories.) (rough translation)
He wrote some books and short treatises (risalah), listed here:
1. Tafsir Yaqoob Charkhi (Persian)
تفسير يعقوب چرخي
This is a Tafsīr (exegesis) of the first chapter Fateha and the last two Ajza of the Holy Quran. Completed in 851 AH (1447), it has been published multiple times. First published probably in 1891 in Lucknow, the recent Farsi edition was published in 2004 by Ar-Rahim Academy, Azam-nagar, Karachi.
A number of Urdu translations are also published, most recently by Zia-ul-Quran Publications Lahore which is also available on maktabah.org. Another translation with research notes was done by Muhammad Nazir Ranjha and published in 2005. It is available here.
2. Risalah Na’iyah (رساله نائيه)
This is a commentary over the preface of Masnavi, the great book of Persian poetry by Mawlana Jalaluddin Rumi. The Farsi edition was first published in 1336 AH by Anjuman-e Tarikh-e Afghanistan, Kabul. Its Urdu translation by Muhammad Nazir Ranjha was published in 1978 by Islamic Book Foundation Lahore, second edition was published in 2004.
3. Risalah Unsiyyah (رساله اُنسيه)
This contains merits of keeping Wuzu at all times, merits of Zikr al-Khafi according to the Naqshbandi method, merits of Nawāfil, and some quotes (sayings) of Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband and Khwaja Ala’uddin Attar, may Allah be pleased with them. Its Urdu translation by Muhammad Nazir Ranjha, accompanied with the original Persian text, is published and available atmaktabah.org. It is also included in the book Risāil Hazrat Mawlānā Ya’qūbCharkhī published by Ranjha in 2009. Another Urdu translation by Iqbal Ahmad Faruqi is published in a collection of Naqshbandi writings and is available here.
4. Sharah Rubai Abu Saeed Abu al-Khair, aka Jamāliah or Hūrāiya
شرح رباعي ابو سعيد ابي الخير، جماليه، حورائيه
This manuscript is kept in the Markaz Tahqīqāt Fārsi Iran wa Pakistan (Center for Persian Research in Iran and Pakistan). This is a commentary of a poem of Shaykh Abu Saeed Abu al-Khair. This was published in a magazine, and its Urdu translation was done by Muhammad Nazeer Ranjha and included in the book Seh Risail Hazrat Maulana Yaqūb Charkhi (three writings of Maulana Yaqub Charkhi), published in 1998 by Akhlāq Ahmad Academy, Lahore. Farsi text with Urdu translation are included in Risāil Hazrat Mawlānā Ya’qūb Charkhī published by Ranjha in 2009.
5. Risalah Abdaliah (رساله ابداليه)
Written in Farsi, this is a description of the existence of saints and their spiritual posts. Persian edition was published in June 1978 with research by Muhammad Nazeer Ranjha, and its Urdu translation by Ranjha was also published in the same year by Islamic Book Foundation Lahore. Farsi text with Urdu translation are included in Risāil Hazrat Mawlānā Ya’qūb Charkhī published by Ranjha in 2009.
6. Sharh Asma-Allah (شرح اسماء الحسنیٰ)
This contains benefits and merits of the blessed Names of Allah (Asmā-Allah). Handwritten manuscripts are available in some libraries but publication is not known. However its Urdu translation by Muhammad Nazir Ranjha was published in 1995 from Lahore. Farsi text with Urdu translation are included in Risāil Hazrat Mawlānā Ya’qūb Charkhī published by Ranjha in 2009.
7. Tariqah Khatm Ahzab (طريقه ختم احزاب)
Khwaja Yaqub Charkhi wrote this treatise on the method of reciting the complete Holy Quran, narrating from Hāfiz ad-Dīn Bukhārī. Its Farsi text and Urdu translation by Muhammad Nazeer Ranjha has been published in 1998 by Akhlaq Ahmad Academy, Lahore, included in the book Seh Risail Hazrat Maulana Yaqūb Charkhi (three writings of Maulana Yaqub Charkhi). Farsi text with Urdu translation are included in Risāil Hazrat Mawlānā Ya’qūb Charkhī published by Ranjha in 2009.
8. Risalah about signs of Qiyamah (رساله درباره اصحاب و علامات قيامت)
A manuscript of this Farsi article is known to exist in Tashkent and Tehran, with some damage to starting pages.
9. Translation of Holy Quran into Tajik
Some newspapers reported (in 1982) that a Tajik translation of the Holy Quran was published in Soviet Tajikistan, done by Mawlana Yaqub Charkhi. This has not been verified through any reliable source.
Shaykh Yaqub al-Charkhi
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
“I have known God and I see none other than Him
So that the ‘Other’ inus is shut out.
Since I realized unity, I no longer fear separation;
This day I have arrived and am united.”
Scholar of Saints and Saint of Scholars
He appeared among human beings dressed in the two knowledges, the exernal and the internal. His conduct and character were so refined that he reflected the attributes of God to all people. He revived spirituality within Divine Law and he revived Divine Law (sharica) within spirituality. People followed him because his way was the best, for he had inherited Knowledge of the Unseen from the Prophet (s).
He was born in the city of Jarkh, a suburb of Garnin, between the two cities of Kandahar and Kabul, in Transoxiana. In his youth he went to the city of Herat to educate himself. He then went to Egypt where he learned the sciences of sharaca and logic. He memorized the Qur’an as well as 500,000 hadiths, both the correct and the false. One of his teachers was Shihabuddin ash-Shirawani, known as the Encyclopedia of the Age. He continued his education until he reached the level where he could give fatwas (legal decisions) on any matter that faced Muslims. He was a mujtahid mutlaq (capable of independent legal reasoning) in the two knowledges, external and internal. He returned to his country and followed Baha’uddin Naqshband (q) then Alauddin al-Attar (q) to educate himself in the hidden knowledge..
Of his teacher in Spiritual Knowledge he said,
“I was sincere and loyal in my love for Shaykh Baha’uddin before I even knew him. When I got the ijaza (permission) to be a mujtahid mutlaqand to give fatwa, I went back to my country and I went to visit him and pay my respects. I said to him, with complete humbleness and obedience, “Please keep me always in the Essence of your Vision.” He said, “You came to me on your way back to your country of Jarkh?” I said to him, “I love you and I am your servant because you have the greatest fame and you are accepted by everyone.” He said, “That is not a good enough reason for me to accept you.” Then I replied, “O my Shaykh, the Prophet (s) said in his authentic hadith, ‘If Allah loves someone, he will influence the hearts of people to love that person as well.'” Then Bahauddin smiled and said, “I am the spiritual inheritor of Azizan. What you say is true.” When he said this phrase I was so surprised, because I had heard in a dream one month before, a voice saying to me “Be the murid of Azizan.” At the time I didn’t know who Azizan was. But he mentioned the word as if he had been aware of the dream. Then I took his leave. He said, ‘You may go, but let me give you a gift by which you will remember me.’ He gave me his turban. He said, ‘When you see this or use it you will remember me, and when you remember me you will find me and when you find me you will find your Way to Allah.”
“He told me, ‘On your way back to your country of Balkh, if you meet Mawlana Tajuddin al-Kawlaki, keep your heart from gossiping in his presence because he is a great saint and he will scold you.’ I said to myself, ‘I am going back to Herat by way of Balkh, but I am not going through Kawlak, where Mawlana Tajuddin is living. So I don’t think that I will see him.’ But on the way an event occurred to the caravan with which I was traveling and obliged us to go by way of Kawlak. I remembered the words of Shaykh Bahauddin, ‘If you pass by Kawlak, then visit Shaykh Tajuddin al-Kawlaki.’ It came to my heart that Shaykh Bahauddin caused the event to occur so that I would go to visit the Shaykh. When we arrived in Kawlak, it was very dark, with no stars in the sky. I went to the mosque to ask about Mawlana Tajuddin Kawlaki. One person came to me from behind a pillar and said to me, ‘Are you Yacqub al-Charkhi?’ I was astonished. He said, ‘Don’t be surprised. I knew you before you came here. My Shaykh, Shaykh Bahauddin, sent me to take you to Shaykh Tajuddin al-Kawlaki.’ On the way to see him, we met an old man, who said, ‘O my son, our way is full of surprises. Whoever enters it cannot understand it. The seeker must leave his mind behind.’ We then entered the presence of Mawlana Tajuddin and it was very difficult to keep my heart free from any gossip. Mawlana Tajuddin gave me a piece of spiritual knowledge that he possessed and which I had never heard before. All that I had learned was nothing compared to this knowledge. I was so happy with my Shaykh, Shaykh Bahauddin, and the way in which he arranged for me to meet with Mawlana Tajuddin, that my love for him increased greatly.”
“After I reached my country, from time to time, I would go to Bukhara to visit Shaykh Bahauddin. In Bukhara there was a majdhub, a person lost in the Divine Love, who was very well-known and whom people used to go to for blessing. One day when I intended to visit Shaykh Bahauddin, I decided to pass by that person and see what he would say. When he saw me he told me, ‘Quickly go to your destination and don’t stop. What you have decided is the best.’ He began to draw many lines in the dust. It came to my heart to count these lines. If the number of lines was odd then it would indicate a good sign for me, because the Prophet (s) said, ‘Allah is One and He like the odd number.’ I counted the lines and found their number to be odd. It made my heart happy. I went to visit Shaykh Bahauddin and asked him to give me initiation and teach me dhikr. So he taught me the station of Awareness of Number, wuquf cadadi, and he said to me, as if he had been with me when I met the majdhub, ‘O my son, always keep to the odd numbers, just as you wished the number of lines be odd, and it gave you a sign, so keep that awareness when you make dhikr.”
“I was so deeply immersed in the fountain of light and love that was my Shaykh, that I was visiting him more and more and love for him was increasing ever more in my heart. One day I opened the Holy Qur’an to the ayat, ula’ik alladheena hada-l-Lahu fa bi hudahum uqtadih(‘Those are the Ones who have been guided by Allah, so follow their guidance’) [6:90]. I was so happy to read that verse. At that time I was living in a city called Fatahabad. At the end of the day I decided to visit the mosque and the grave of Shaykh al-Bakharazi. On my way, a thought came to my heart, which upset me, so I decided to visit Shaykh Bahauddin instead. When I came into his presence, it was as if he had been waiting for me. He looked into my eyes and then said, ‘The time of the prayers has come and then we will speak.’ After the prayers he said, ‘Look at me.’ I saw in his face a majestic vision, which made my heart shake. I kept my mouth closed and he said to me ‘Knowledge is of two kinds: knowledge of the heart, and this is the beneficial knowledge and it is the knowledge of Prophets and Messengers; and the knowledge of the tongue, the external knowledge, and this is, as all visible and audible teaching, the Proof of Allah to His Creation. I wish that Allah will give you good fortune in the Internal Knowledge. And it came through hadith: ‘If you sit with the People of Truth, sit with them with a true heart, because they are the spies of the heart. They can enter and see what is inside your heart.'”
“I have been ordered by Allah, Almighty and Exalted, and by the Prophet (s), and by my Shaykh, not to accept anyone in my way unless Allah, the Prophet and my Shaykhs accept that person. So I will look tonight to see if you are accepted.’ This was the most difficult day of my life. I felt I would melt from the fear that they would not accept me on this Way. I prayed Fajr behind him and I was so afraid. When he looked into my heart everything disappeared and he was appearing everywhere. I heard his voice saying, ‘May Allah bless you. He accepts you and I accept you.’ Then he began to recite the names of the Masters of the Golden Chain from the Prophet to Abu Bakr, Salman, Qassim, Jacfar, Tayfar, Abul Hassan, Abu cAli, Yasuf, Abul cAbbas, cAbdul Khaliq. Every Shaykh he mentioned appeared in front of him. When he mentioned cAbdul Khaliq he stopped and cAbdul Khaliq appeared in front of me. He said, ‘Give him to me now,’ and he taught me more of the knowledge of wuquf al-cadadi, the Science of numbers. He told me that knowledge came to him through Khidr (s). Then my Shaykh continued reciting the silsilah(chain), cArif Mahmoud, cAli Ramitani, Muhammad Baba as-Samasi, Sayid Amir Kulal. They were each appearing by turn and giving me initiation. I continued serving him, standing at his door, learning from him, until he gave me permission to be a guide to people on this Way. He said to me, ‘This Way is going to be the greatest happiness for you.'”
Ubaydullah al-A rar reported that Yaqub said to him: “O my son, I received an order from Shah Naqshband (q) to accompany Shaykh cAla’uddin al-cAttar after his [Shah Naqshband’s] death. By the order of my Shaykh I was in his company as his murid from the time of Baha’uddin’s death until cAla’uddin’s death in Jaganyan in Bukhara. By the blessing of his companionship my state was elevated and my training completed.”
Ubaidullah al-Ahrar said that Shaykh Yacqub al-Charkhi and Shaykh Zainuddin al-Khawafi were like brothers when they studied together in Egypt under the teaching of the scholar, Shaykh Shihabuddin as-Shirwani. Shaykh Zainuddin said that Shaykh Yacqub al-Charkhi used to disappear and appear during his lectures. This miracle symbolizes the state of complete self-effacement into the Presence in Allah Almighty. This was his state in Egypt, until he came and followed Shah Naqshband, and then he reached a state of perfection.
He died in the village of Hulgatu, on the 5th of Safar, 851 H. He had many khalifs. He passed the Secret of this Order to Shaykh Ubaydullah al-Ahrar, may Allah bless his secret.
Hazrat Khwaja Ya’aqoob Charchi rahmatullāhi alaihi :
Aap ki wilaadat 762 Hijri (1360/61 A.D.) me Charkh (Transoxiana) me hui.
Aap ke waalid ka naam Uṡmaan bin Mahmood Ghaznawi hai.
Aap ne pehle Herat (Iran) me aur phir Misr jaakar ta’aleem haasil ki.
Aap ne Hazrat Shahaab-ud-deen Shirawani se aur deegar ulama se ta’aleem haasil ki. Aur Mufti ki sanad haasil ki.
Aap Haafize Qur’an hue aur 5,00,000 Ahadeeṡ ko hifz kiya.
Phir Aap apne watan tashreef laaye.
Phir Aap ko uloome baatini haasil karne ki talab hui.
Fatahabad me qayaam ke dauraan ek martaba Aap Hazrat Shaikh Alam Saif-ul-Haq Bakhirzi rahmatullāhi alaihi ke mazaar par muraaqaba kar rahe the tab Aap ko Hazrat Khwaja Shaah Baha-ud-deen Naqshband rahmatullāhi alaihi ki baargaah me jaane ke liye bashaarat hui.
Aap safar karke Qasr Arifan tashreef le gaye.
Jab Aap Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-deen Naqshband ki baargaah me pahunche aur bai’at ke liye arz kiya to Hazrat ne Aap ko subah ko milne ke liye farmaaya. Aap puri raat fikrmand rahe ke Hazrat mujhe qubool farmaenge ya nahi. Subah ko Hazrat ke pichhe namaaz e fajr ada karne ke baad Hazrat ki khidmat me aaye to Hazrat ki ek nazar se Aap ke dil me sukoon paida ho gaya. Phir Hazrat ne apna shajra padhna shuru kiya aur Huzoor Rasool-Allāh sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam aur Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddeeq radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anhu se lekar Hazrat Khwaja Sayyed Ameer Kulaal rahmatullāhi alaihi tak silsile ke masha’ikhe saabiq ke naam padhte gaye to wo tamaam Hazraat ek ke baad ek jalwa afroz hote gaye aur faiz ata farmaate rahe. Hazrat Khwaja Abdul Khaaliq Ghujdwani ne Wuqoof-ul-Adadi ka ilm bhi ata farmaaya jo unhe khaas Hazrat Khizr alaihis salaam se mila tha.
Hazrat ke mureed hone ke baad kuchh arse tak Aap Peer o murshid ki khidmat me rehkar ta’aleem aur faiz haasil karte rahe.
Aap jab waapas jaa rahe the tab Hazrat ne farmaaya “Raaste me agar Maulana Taaj-ud-deen al-Kawlaki se mulaaqaat ho to un ki baargaah me apne dil ko fuzool khyaalo se paak rakhna warna wo tumhare dil ka haal jaan lenge aur tumhe daantenge.” Aap ne arz kiya “Huzoor! Main Balkh jaa raha hu magar mujhe Kawlak ki taraf nahi jaana hai. Is liye meri Maulana Taaj-ud-deen Kawlaki se mulaaqaat nahi hogi.”
Magar raaste me haalaat aise hue ke qaafile ko Kawlak ki taraf se guzarna pada. Aap ko apne Peer ki baat yaad aai. Qaafila jab Kawlak pahuncha to andheri raat thi. Aap masjid me gaye aur Maulana Taaj-ud-deen Kawlaki ke baare me puchha. Ek shakhs ek khambe ke pichhe se aaya aur puchha “Kya aap Ya’aqoob Charchi hain?” Aap ko ta’ajjub hua. Us shakhs ne kaha “Heratzada mat ho. Mujhe mere Shaikh Khwaja Baha-ud-deen Naqshband ne bheja hai.” Jab Aap us shakhs ke saath gaye to raaste me ek buzurg mile. Unho ne kaha ‘Bete! Humari raah herat me daal dene waali baato se bhari hui hai. Jo koi is me daakhil hota hai woh use samajh nahi sakta. Is liye mureed ko apne deemagh ko is se door rakhna chaahiye.”
Jab aap Maulana Taaj-ud-deen Kawlaki ki baargaah me pahunche to Aap ke liye khayaalo ko rokkar rakhna bahot mushkil tha. Hazrat ne apne khaas ilm me se kuchh hissa aap ko ata farmaaya jo Aap ne kabhi suna bhi nahi tha. Aap ko behad khushi hui ke Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-deen Naqshband ne mujh par khaas karam farmaaya aur Maulana Taaj-ud-deen Kawlaki ki khidmat me pahunchaaya. Aur Aap ke dil me apne Peer ke liye aur mohabbat aur adab paida hui.
Aap kai baar apne Peer Hazrat Khwaja Sayyed Baha-ud-deen Naqshband ki mulaaqaat ke liye tashreef le jaate.
Khwaja Naqshband ke wisaal ke baad Aap ranjeeda hokar Kash tashreef le gaye. Magar Khwaja Naqshband ke farmaan par Hazrat Khwaja Sayyed Ala-ud-deen Attaar rahmatullāhi alaihi ki baargaah me aaye aur un se ta’aleem mukammal ki.
Aap ki likhi hui kitaaben :
(1) Tafseer Ya’aqoob Charkhi
(2) Risaalah Naa’iyah
(3) Risaalah Unsiyyah
(4) Risaalah Abdaaliah
(5) Risaalah Darbaare Ashaab wa Alaamaate Qayaamat
(6) Tareeqah Khatm Ahzaab
(7) Sharah Asma ul Husna
(8) Sharah Rubaai Abu Saeed Abul Khair, Jamaaliah, Hooraaiyah.
Aap ke saahbazaade Hazrat Maulana Yousuf Charkhi rahmatullāhi alaihi hain.
Aap Hazrat Khwaja Sayyed Shaah Baha-ud-deen Naqshband rahmatullāhi alaihi ke mureed aur khalifa hain.
Hazrat Khwaja Sayyed Ala-ud-deen Attaar rahmatullāhi alaihi ne bhi Aap ko khilaafat ata farmai hai.
Aap ke khalifa :
Hazrat Khwaja Nasir-ud-deen Ubaidullāh Ahraar rahmatullāhi alaihi.
Aap ka wisaal 5 Safar 851 Hijri (22 April 1447 A.D.) ko Sanichar ke roz hua.
Aap ka mazaar Dushanbe ke qareeb Hulaftu (Tajikistan) me hai.
ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Hazrat Khwaja Ya’aqoob Charchi rahmatullāhi alaihi aur tamaam Auliya Allāh aur Ahle bait aur Ashaaba ke waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.