Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori RA

Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori (also spelled GhauriGhouri) (Persian: سلطان شہاب الدین محمد غوری‎), originally called Mu’izzuddīn Muḥammad Bin Sām (and also referred to by Orientalists as Muhammad of Ghor and famously known as just Ghori) (1150 – March 15, 1206), was one of the rulers of the Ghurid dynasty from the famous house of Sur who were rulers of Ghor for five hundred years. He is credited with laying the foundation of Islamic occupation in India that lasted for several centuries. He reigned over a territory spanning present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India.
Muiz-ud-din, son of Sam Suri, nicknamed Shahab-ud-din which means “The (Flashing) Fire of Religion (Islam)” took the city of Ghazni in 1173 to avenge the death of his ancestor Muhammad Suri at the hands of Mahmud of Ghazni and used it as a launching-pad for expansion into northern India.[1] In the meantime, he assisted his brother Ghiyasuddin in his contest with the Khwarezmid Empire for the lordship of Khorāsān in Western Asia. In 1175 Ghori captured Multan from the Hamid Ludi dynasty which was also Pashtun but were alleged to be un-Islamic on the account of their association with Ismailite Shi’iate sect and also took Uch in 1175. He also annexed the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186, the last haven of his Afghan but Non-Pashtun Persianized rivals.[1] After the death of Ghiyasuddin in 1202, he became the successor of the Ghurid Empire and ruled until his assassination in 1206 near Jhelum in modern-day Pakistan.[2]
A confused struggle then ensued among the remaining Ghūrid leaders, and the Khwarezmids were able to take over the Ghūrids’ empire in about 1215. Though the Ghūrids’ empire was short-lived and petty Ghurid Suri states remained in power until the arrival of Timurids, Shahabuddin Ghori’s conquests laid the foundations of Muslim rule in India. Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave (Mamluk) of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi.

Background

The Ghuristan region remained primarily Hindu and Buddhist till 12th century. It was then Islamised by the Ghaznavids and later gave rise to the Ghurids.
The rise to power of the Ghurids at Ghur, a small isolated area located in the mountain vastness between the Ghaznavid empire and the Seljukids, was an unusual and unexpected development. The area was so remote that till the 11th century, it had remained a Hindu enclave surrounded by Muslim principalities. It was converted to Islam in the early part of the 12th century after Mahmud raided it, and left teachers to instruct the Ghurids in the precepts of Islam. Even then it is believed that paganism, i.e. a variety of Mahayana Buddhism persisted in the area till the end of the century.[3]

Early life

Shahab-ud-din Ghori was born Muizz-ud-dīn Muhammad Bin Sām in 1150 CE in the Ghor region of Afghanistan. The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father, Baha-ud-din Sām bin Hussain, was the local ruler of the Ghor region at the time.[1]

The Ghori Empire

The Ghor region laid on the western boundary of the Ghaznavid Empire, which, in the early 12th century, covered an area stretching from what is now central Afghanistan to the Punjab in what is now Pakistan, with summer capital at Ghazni and winter capital at Lahore. Beginning in the mid-12th century, Ghor expressed its independence from the Ghaznavid Empire. In 1149, the Ghaznavid ruler Bahram Shāh poisoned a local Ghūrid leader, Quṭb ud-Dīn, who had taken refuge in the city of Ghazna after a family quarrel. In revenge, the Ghūrid chief Ala-ud-Din Husain Shah sacked and burned the city of Ghazna and put the city into fire for seven days and seven nights. It earned him the title of Jahānsuz, meaning “the world burner”.[4] The Ghaznavids retook the city with Seljuk help, but lost it to Oghuz Turkfreebooters.[4] The Ghurids reconquered Ghaznā from the Oghuz Turks and in 1173, Shahabuddin Ghori became governor of the Ghazna province while his brother, Ghiyasuddin Ghori, became the Sultan of the Ghurid Empire.

Ghurid-Ghaznavid struggles

Mahmud Ghazni had attacked Ghor and the King Amir Suri, an ancestor of Shahabuddin Ghori, who committed suicide with poison after being taken prisoner. Various sources including Ferishta and Siraj attest to these events.
In the following year AH 401 (AD 1010), Mahmood led his army towards Ghor.[5]
According to Minhaj us Siraj, Amir Suri was captured by Mahmud of Ghazni, taken prisoner along with his son, and taken to Ghazni, where Amir Suri died.[6]
Soor, being made prisoner was brought to the king, but having taken poison, which he always kept under his ring, he died in a few hours; his country was annexed to the dominions of Ghizny.[5]
A little over a hundred years after Mahmud, one of his successors to the throne of Ghaznifell into a blood feud with the ruler of Ghor, southeast of Herat. In reprisal Ghazni was sacked by the prince of Ghor a fellow Muslim in 1150, and burned for seven days and nights. All the magnificent Mahmudi palaces and halls were destroyed and plunder, devastation and, and slaughter were continuous. It might be a historian reporting one of Mahmud’s own murderous Indian raids. The Ghori victor earned the title of Jahansoze, the world burner. The bells ring again: the perpetrations of the northern foreigners were not essentially anti-Hindu. They could be quite merciless with Muslim rivals as well, for that was a part of their way of life. Ghazni now fell to a Turkman tribe which was in its turn ousted by the nephew of Jahansoze in 1173. The latter gave it to his brother later to be known as Muhammad of Ghori.[7]
Muhammad of Ghori launched expeditions into India, first capturing Multan from a fellow Muslim chief in 1175–76. Three years later he invaded Gujarat and was roundly defeated by the Hindu King. Another three years later, and Shahabuddin Ghori was back to take Peshawar and Sialkot in 1181. Now in alliance with the Hindu Raja of Jammu Vijaya Dev, he attacked Lahore in 1187, which was held by his ancestral enemy, the descendant of Mahmud of Ghazni, and made him prisoner. Mahmud of Ghazni’s line of Sultans and Governors became extinguished.[7]
Shahabuddin Ghori is credited with the decimation of the Ghaznavids, his ancestral enemies.
In alliance with the Hindu Raja of Jammu Vijaya Dev, he attacked Lahore in 1187, which was held by his ancestral enemy, the descendent of Mahmud of Ghazni, and made him prisoner. Mahmud of Ghazni’s line of Sultans and Governors became extinguished.[7]

Succession

Shahabuddin Ghori had no offspring, but he treated his Turkic slaves as his sons, who were trained both as soldiers and administrators and provided with the best possible education. Many of his competent and loyal slaves rose to positions of importance in Shahabuddin Ghori’s army and government.
When a courtier lamented that the Sultan had no male heirs, Shahabuddin Ghori retorted:
“Other monarchs may have one son, or two sons; I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be the heirs of my dominions, and who, after me, will take care to preserve my name in the Khuṭbah (Friday sermon) throughout these territories.”[cite this quote]
Shahabuddin Ghori’s prediction proved true. After his assassination, his Empire was divided amongst his slaves. Most notably:
Qutb-ud-din Aibak became ruler of Delhi in 1206, establishing the Sultanate of Delhi, which marked the start of the Slave dynasty[13]
Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became ruler of Multan in 1210
Tajuddin Yildoz became ruler of Ghazni
Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji became ruler of Bengal

Image result for Muhammad Ghori  pdfShahbuddin Ghauri

मोहम्मद ग़ोरी

शहाब-उद-दीन मुहम्मद ग़ोरी १२वीं शताब्दी का अफ़ग़ान सेनापति था जो १२०२ ई. में ग़ोरी साम्राज्य का शासक बना। सेनापति की क्षमता में उसने अपने भाई ग़ियास-उद-दीन ग़ोरी (जो उस समय सुल्तान था) के लिए भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप पर ग़ोरी साम्राज्य का बहुत विस्तार किया और उसका पहला आक्रमण मुल्तान (११७५ ई.) पर था। पाटन (गुजरात) के शासक भीम द्वितीय पर मोहम्मद ग़ौरी ने ११७८ ई. में आक्रमण किया किन्तु मोहम्मद ग़ौरी बुरी तरह पराजित हुआ।

मोहम्मद ग़ोरी और पृथ्वीराज चौहान के बीच तराईन के मैदान में दो युद्ध हुए। ११९१ ई. में हुए तराईन के प्रथम युद्ध में पृथ्वीराज चौहान की विजय हुई किन्तु अगले ही वर्ष ११९२ ई. में पृथ्वीराज चौहान को तराईन के द्वितीय युद्ध में मोहम्मद ग़ोरी ने बुरी तरह पराजित किया। मोहम्मद ग़ोरी ने चंदावर के युद्ध (११९४ ई.) में दिल्ली के गहड़वाल वंश के शासक जयचंद को पराजित किया। मोहम्मद ग़ौरी ने भारत में विजित साम्राज्य का अपने सेनापतियों को सौप दिया और वह गज़नी चला गया। बाद में गोरी के गुलाम कुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक ने गुलाम राजवंश की नीव डाली।

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जीवनी

ग़ोरी राजवंश की नीव अला-उद-दीन जहानसोज़ ने रखी और सन् ११६१ में उसके देहांत के बाद उसका पुत्र सैफ़-उद-दीन ग़ोरी सिंहासन पर बैठा। अपने मरने से पहले अला-उद-दीन जहानसोज़ ने अपने दो भतीजों – शहाब-उद-दीन (जो आमतौर पर मुहम्मद ग़ोरी कहलाता है) और ग़ियास-उद-दीन – को क़ैद कर रखा था लेकिन सैफ़-उद-दीन ने उन्हें रिहा कर दिया।[1] उस समय ग़ोरी वंश ग़ज़नवियों और सलजूक़ों की अधीनता से निकलने के प्रयास में था। उन्होंने ग़ज़नवियों को तो ११४८-११४९ में ही ख़त्म कर दिया था लेकिन सलजूक़ों का तब भी ज़ोर था और उन्होंने कुछ काल के लिए ग़ोर प्रान्त पर सीधा क़ब्ज़ा कर लिए था, हालांकि उसके बाद उसे ग़ोरियों को वापस कर दिया था।

सलजूक़ों ने जब इस क्षेत्र पर नियंत्रण किया था जो उन्होंने सैफ़-उद-दीन की पत्नी के ज़ेवर भी ले लिए थे। गद्दी ग्रहण करने के बाद एक दिन सैफ़-उद-दीन ने किसी स्थानीय सरदार को यह ज़ेवर पहने देख लिया और तैश में आकर उसे मार डाला। जब मृतक के भाई को कुछ महीनो बाद मौक़ा मिला तो उसने सैफ़-उद-दीन को बदले में भाला मरकर मार डाला। इस तरह सैफ़-उद-दीन का शासनकाल केवल एक वर्ष के आसपास ही रहा।[1] ग़ियास-उद-दीन नया शासक बना और उसके छोटे भाई शहाब-उद-दीन ने उसका राज्य विस्तार करने में उसकी बहुत वफ़ादारी से मदद करी। शहाब-उद-दीन (उर्फ़ मुहम्मद ग़ोरी) ने पहले ग़ज़ना पर क़ब्ज़ा किया, फिर ११७५ में मुल्तान और ऊच पर और फिर ११८६ में लाहौर पर। जब उसका भाई १२०२ में मरा तो शहाब-उद-दीन मुहम्मद ग़ोरी सुलतान बन गया।

इस भ्रम के लिए कि मुहम्मद गौरी का पृथ्वीराज चौहान से 16 बार युद्ध हुआ था। कृप्या महमूद ग़ज़नवी का लेख देखें।

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मृत्यु और देहान्तोपरांत

15 मार्च १२०६ में आधुनिक पाकिस्तान के झेलम क्षेत्र में नदी के किनारे मुहम्मद ग़ोरी को खोखर नामक जाट उपसमूह के लोगों ने अपने राज्य भेरा के ऊपर हुए हमलों का बदला लेने के लिए हमला किया जिसमे वह बच गया परन्तु कुछ समय पश्चात उसकी मृत्यु हो गयी[2] मुहम्मद ग़ोरी का कोई बेटा नहीं था और उसकी मौत के बाद उसके साम्राज्य के भारतीय क्षेत्र पर उसके प्रिय ग़ुलाम क़ुतुब-उद-दीन ऐबक ने दिल्ली सल्तनतस्थापित करके उसका विस्तार करना शुरू कर दिया। उसके अफ़ग़ानिस्तान व अन्य इलाक़ों पर ग़ोरियों का नियंत्रण न बच सका और ख़्वारेज़्मी साम्राज्य ने उन पर क़ब्ज़ा कर लिया। ग़ज़ना और ग़ोर कम महत्वपूर्ण हो गए और दिल्ली अब क्षेत्रीय इस्लामी साम्राज्य का केंद्र बन गया। इतिहासकार सन् १२१५ के बाद ग़ोरी साम्राज्य को पूरी तरह विस्थापित मानते हैं।

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