Born to a Central Asia Turk family, Qutb-ud-din Aibak was captured and sold as a slave when he was a child. He was lucky to be purchased by the chief Qazi of Nishapur, who treated him like one of his own sons. Aibak received good education and was trained in the field of archery and horsemanship. However, when the master died, his sons, who were jealous of Aibak, sold him to a slave merchant. Fortune once again favored him and Muhammad Ghuri bought him.
Out of Ghuri’s thousands of slaves, Aibak, because of his character and qualities, became one of his master’s favorite. Aibak steadily rose through the ranks and eventually became a General. Like his owner Ghuri, Aibak performed his greatest deeds while still a subordinate. He was responsible for most of the conquests of Northern India and was appointed as Ghuri’s Viceroy to Delhi. When Ghuri died in 1206, the Turkish Amirs and Generals elected Aibak as the new Sultan. It was he who shifted the capital first from Ghazni to Lahore, and then from Lahore to Delhi, and thus is considered as the first Muslim ruler of South Asia.
Aibak could not rule for long and died in 1210 after falling from a horse while playing polo. He is buried near the Anarkali Bazaar in Lahore, where a new tomb was constructed over his grave around 1970. Though his tenure as a ruler was only four years, and most of them were spend in dealing with the revolts of nobles like Taj-ud-din Ildiz, Nasir-ud-din Qubachah and a few Hindu chiefs, yet he established a firm administrative system. He restored peace and prosperity in the area under him and roads were free from thieves and robbers. He started the construction of Quwaat-al-Islam Mosque at Delhi. He also laid the foundation of the Qutb Minar, which was completed by his successor Iltutmush. Aibak was known as Lakh Baksh because of his generosity. He was also a pious Muslim. Historians have praised his evenhanded justice. He patronized Nizami and Fakh-i-Mudabbir, both of whom dedicated their works to Aibak.
His successors, who ruled India till 1290, were also slaves like him and the dynasty is known as the Slave Dynasty.
Aibak was born in a Turkish family of the Aibak tribe and unfortunately during his childhood he was arrested and sold as a slave. Historic references say that he was bought by one of the tribal chiefs of Nishapur, who treated him like his own son. Aibak didn’t know that this would be a turning point of his life because the tribal chief provided him with excellent education and trained him in the fields of archery and the art of horsemanship. However, Aibak could not long enjoy the patronage of his master, as after his death his sons sold him again.
Luck favoured Aibak again, as his new master was as the famous Muhammad Ghauri , Sultan of the Ghaurid Empire. After Ghauri bought him, Aibak once again became the ‘favourite’ of his new master because of his exceptional character and outstanding qualities. That was the time when Aibak started his new life by moving ahead from being only a slave as Ghauri made him the ‘amir-i-akhur’ (master of slave).
From ‘amir-i-akhur,’ Aibak rose to the rank of a general. He was responsible for most of the conquests of Northern India and was appointed Ghauri’s viceroy of Delhi. When Ghauri died in 1206, he had no male heir and so according to his will, Aibak was made the Sultan. That was the time when a slave rose to the position of Sultan. Aibak, a former slave was now “the master of all.” It was Qutbuddin Aibak who shifted the capital from Ghazni to Lahore, and then from Lahore to Delhi, and thus is considered as the first Muslim ruler of South Asia. After coming to power, Aibak had to face many challenges, in order to keep his position intact. Turkish officers could not be trusted as they were all jealous of him and his power. Another major threat was posed by the Rajputs who were defeated and the sovereignty of North India was taken away from their hands by the Turks. As a result they too were fighting the Turks.
Aibak faced all these difficulties with mental strength. He was well acquainted with the principles of civil administration and was an expert in military affairs. He first strengthened his position in Delhi and Lahore and then most of Turkish nobles were convinced to admit his subordination. He restored peace and prosperity in the areas under his rule and roads were free from thieves and robbers, who were very common in those times.
Aibak was known as ‘lakh baksh’ (giver of hundred thousand) because of his generosity. He was also a pious Muslim.
A unique step Aibak took was that he established the ‘slave dynasty’ on the death of Muhammad Ghori in 1206 when he assumed independence of his reign and was followed by nine other ‘slave kings.’ His successors, who ruled India until 1290, were also slaves like him and thus dynasty became known as the ‘slave dynasty.’ Six centuries of Muslim rule in India followed Qutbuddin Aibak and the slave dynasty lasted until 1290. The Sultanate itself lasted until 1526 until the Mughals took over.
Historic accounts tell us that like Mughals, Aibak also was a lover of architecture and build some renowned monumental buildings in Delhi and other cities. He started the construction of Quwaat-al-Islam Mosque at Delhi. He also laid the foundation of the Qutab Minar, which was completed by his successor Iltutmish.
Aibak is also remembered in history for various things he did such as his combining of Hindu and Muslim styles and willingness to employ skilled Hindu artisans to create India’s first state-funded Islamic monuments. This act of his united the Hindus and Muslims of sub continent. Historians say that during his reign, he destroyed a number of Hindu temples and Buddhist monasteries in India and Delhi and using that material he built the mosques and madrasas for the Muslim community. It is said that he built one mosque at Delhi and another at Ajmer.
As per historic accounts Aibak had started construction of the impressive Qwat-ul-Islam (might of Islam) mosque in Delhi in 1192. The mosque was built in a period of four years (1192-97) and acquired its first set of boundaries over the remnants of twenty-seven Hindu-Jain temples that were demolished deliberately as an act of war to establish the power of Ghaurid Turk rule in the newly acquired city of Delhi. Expansion of the mosque was continued after Aibak’s death by his able son-in-law and general of the army, Iltutmish, in the year 1230.
Aibak started the construction of the magnificent Qutub Minar, a minaret for announcing the Islamic call to prayers in Delhi in 1199 A.D and the work was finished during the reign of Iltutmish. The Qutb Minar “has no parallel in the land of Islam,” wrote eyewitness Battutah. This majestic cylindrical tower continues to be a representation of strength and architectural brilliance of the country. During the time of Aibak’s rule the Iron Pillar was also built. Standing at the centre of the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, the Iron Pillar is undeniably amongst one of the most famous heritage attractions in Delhi and within the entire Qutub Complex.
Aibak, as a Sultan won a large number of victories in battlefields and according to historic accounts he rarely lost a battle. He died in Lahore in 1210 A.D. While playing polo a game he loved, Aibak fell from a horse and was severely injured. He was buried in Lahore
कुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक का इतिहास व तथ्य Qutubuddin Aibak Life History in Hindi
कुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक मध्यकालीन भारत में एक शासक थे। वह दिल्ली सल्तनत के पहले सुल्तान तथा गुलाम वंश के स्थापक भी थे। उन्होंने सिर्फ 4 साल ही अपना शासन चलाया।
कुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक का इतिहास व तथ्य Qutubuddin Aibak Life History in Hindi
कुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक एक अत्यधिक प्रतिभावान सैनिक थे। उनके जीवन इतिहास के अनुसार वह पहले एक दास के रूप में रहे फिर उसके बाद वह गौरी साम्राज्य के सुल्तान मुहम्मद गौरी के सेना संचालन एवं सैन्य अभियानों के सहायक बने और उसके बाद आखिर में दिल्ली के सुल्तान बनने का उनको मौका मिला।
वह तुर्किस्तान के रहने वाले थे। उन क्षेत्रों में उस दौरान दास प्रथा एवं व्यापार का बहुत चलन था। गुलाम एवं दासों की खरीद-फरोख्त काफी लाभदायक मानी जाती थी। गुलामों को उचित प्रकार से शिक्षित किया जाता था एवं प्रशिक्षित भी किया जाता था और फिर इसके बाद उन्हें राजा को बेच दिया जाता था।
यथावत कुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक बचपन में ही इस प्रथा से जूझे अथवा उन्हें भी एक व्यापारी को बेच दिया गया। व्यापारी ने उन्हें फिर पर्शिया के निशापुर के एक काज़ी को बेच दिया। उसी दौरान जब वह बालक अवस्था में थे उन्हें सेना का प्रशिक्षण दिया गया। काज़ी की मृत्यु के बाद काज़ी के बेटों ने कुतुब को फिर से बेच दिया और इस बार मुहम्मद गौरी नामक व्यक्ति ने उन्हें खरीदा।
गोरी ने क़ुतुब की ईमानदारी एवं बहादुरी देखकर उन्हें शाही अस्तबल का अध्यक्ष बना दिया और साथ ही साथ उन्हें सेना के संचालन का काम भी मिला। तराइन के युद्ध में उन्होंने पृथ्वीराज चौहान को हराया और उसके बाद उन्हें भारतीय प्रदेशों के सूबेदार का ओहदा मिला।
वह दिल्ली एवं अन्य क्षेत्रों के उत्तरदाई बने। जैसे-जैसे गोरी का साम्राज्य बढ़ता गया उसी के साथ साथ क़ुतुब को भारत के मध्य हिस्से में शासन करने का अधिकार दिया गया। अफगानिस्तान में गोरी का काफी बड़ा फैला हुआ साम्राज्य था, इस बात से हम यह अंदाजा लगा सकते हैं कि वह एक मजबूत शक्तिशाली शासक था। उनके साम्राज्य के क्षेत्र थे- अफगानिस्तान, पाकिस्तान और उत्तर भारत।
इन्हीं सब उपलब्धियों के कारण सन 1206 में कुतुब को दिल्ली के सुल्तान की पदवी दी गई थी। कुतुब ने कुवत उल इस्लाम मस्जिद और कुतुब मीनार का निर्माण कराया। यह दोनों इमारतें हिंदुस्तान की सबसे प्राचीन मुस्लिम धरोहर है, पर दुर्भाग्यवश इनका निर्माण वह पूरा ना कर सका फिर बाद में जाकर इस अधूरे निर्माण कार्य को इल्तुतमिश ने पूरा किया था।
कुतुब मीनार उन्होंने सूफी संत कुतुबुद्दीन बख्तियार की याद में बनवाया था। प्राचीन इतिहास के अनुसार कुतुब मीनार के निर्माण को कुतुब की जीत का प्रतीक मानते हैं। सन 1210 में एक हादसे के दौरान पोलो खेलते हुए उनकी मौत हुई।
उनकी मृत्यु घोड़े से गिरने की वजह से हुई थी। लाहौर में उन्हें दफनाया गया था इसके उपरांत उन्हीं के भतीजे जिनका नाम शमसुद्दीन इल्तुतमिश था, उनके उत्तराधिकारी बने और आगे जाकर उनके साम्राज्य को संभाला था । कुतुब भारत में तुर्क सल्तनत की स्थापना के लिए जाने जाते हैं। ऐसा कहा जाता है कि उन्होंने भारत में इस्लामिक सांप्रदायिक राज्य की स्थापना की थी ।
- कुतुबुद्दीन ने गौरी की मृत्यु के बाद अपने आप को लाहौर में एक स्वतंत्र शासक की तरह घोषित किया।
- कुतुबुद्दीन का राज्य अभिषेक 24 जून सन 1206 में लाहौर में हुआ था ।
- कुतुबुद्दीन ने दिल्ली को अपनी राजधानी बनाया था।
- कुतुबुद्दीन को कुरान का खान कहा जाता था क्योंकि वह बहुत अच्छे स्वर में कुरान पढ़ा करते थे ।
- कुतुबुद्दीन को दानी एवं उदार स्वभाव का माना गया है इसलिए उनका नाम लाख बख्श (लाखों का दानी) पड़ा था।
- दो स्मारकों के अलावा उन्होंने अजमेर में अढ़ाई दिन के झोपड़े का निर्माण कराया ।