Sultan Alauddin Khilji

Alauddin Khilji: Life-History & Story

The captivating tales of the Indian History introduce us to India’s rich and glorious past. India’s history is so fascinating that the more you learn about it, the more intrigued you become. Sultan Alauddin Khilji is one such facet of the Indian History that gives us a glimpse of those times.  Alauddin is considered one of the greatest kings of his times. He commanded a formidable army and held vast territories. Besides his barbaric references by the historians, art and architecture, literature and learning, and public morality reached a new peak under his administration. When a Sultan had so many things under his belt, to have a detailed insight of his life, story, and history is worth knowing:

Alauddin Khilji Story

Born As An Afghani

Zabul Province Afghanistan

According to the 16th-17th century chronicler Haji-ud-Dabir, Alauddin Khilji was born as Ali Gurshasp in Qalat, Zabul Province, Afghanistan. He was the eldest of the four sons of his father Shihabuddin Mas’ud (who was the elder brother of the Khalji Dynasty’s founder Sultan Jalaluddin).

Raised By The Founder Of Khilji Dynasty

Jalaluddin Khalji

After his father’s death, Alauddin was brought up by his uncle Jalaluddin who was the founder of the Khilji Dynasty. When Jalaluddin became the Sultan of Delhi, he appointed Alauddin as Amir-i-Tuzuk (equivalent to Master of ceremonies) and his younger brother Almas Beg as Akhur-beg (equivalent to Master of the Horse).

A Family Person

Alauddin and his younger brother Almas Beg, both married Jalaluddin’s daughters. Alauddin had a second marriage with a woman named Mahru. He further married to two other women named Kamaladevi, and Jhatyapali. According to historians, Alauddin had four sons named Khizr Khan, Shadi Khan, Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah, and Shihab-ud-din Omar. However, there are no references to his daughters by the historians. Some historians also quote that Alauddin was not happily married to Jalaluddin’s daughter, Mallika-i-Jahan; as, after the rise of Jalaluddin as the Monarch of Delhi, she had suddenly become a princess, and became very arrogant, and tried to dominate Alauddin.

When He Was Convinced To Dethrone Jalaluddin

In 1291, when Alauddin played a crucial role in crushing a revolt by the governor of Kara Malik Chajju, Jalaluddin appointed Alauddin the new Governor of Kara. The infuriated Malik Chajju considered Jalaluddin, an ineffective ruler and instigated Alauddin for usurping the Delhi’s throne. This, in combination with his disturbed domestic life, made Alauddin be convinced to dethrone Jalaluddin.

When He Ensued A Series Of Raids

Alauddin Khalji Invasions

To dethrone Jalaluddin was not an easy task as it would require a lot of money to raise a large army and stage a successful coup. To finance his plan, Alauddin raided neighbouring Hindu kingdoms. In 1293, Alauddin raided Bhilsa (a wealthy town in the Paramara kingdom of Malwa). To win the Sultan’s confidence, Alauddin surrendered the entire loot to Jalaluddin. A pleased Jalaluddin appointed him Ariz-i Mamalik (Minister of War) and also gave him other privileges like raising more revenue for strengthening the army. After the success of Bhilsa, Alauddin’s next raid was Devagiri (the capital of the southern Yadava kingdom in the Deccan region). He raided Devagiri in 1296 and looted a huge amount of wealth, including jewels, precious metals, silk products, horses, elephants, and slaves. This time too, Jalaluddin was expecting Alauddin to surrender him the loots. However, instead of returning to Delhi, Alauddin went to Kara with the loots.

When He Murdered His Uncle

After raiding Devagiri in 1296, Alauddin went to Kara with the loots and wrote an apology letter to Jalaluddin for not returning to Delhi with the loots and asked Jalaluddin to pardon him. Jalaluddin decided to visit Kara to meet Alauddin personally. While en route to Kara, Jalaluddin decided to cross the Ganges river with a smaller body of around 1,000 soldiers. On 20 July 1296, when Jalaluddin met Alauddin at the banks of Ganges river in Kara, Alauddin embraced Jalaluddin and stabbed him in the back and declared himself the new king.

When Alauddin Was Proclaimed As The New King

Alauddin Khilji

In July 1296, at Kara, Alauddin was formally proclaimed as the new king with the title “Alauddunya wad Din Muhammad Shah-us Sultan.” Until his ascension, he was known as Ali Gurshasp. He ordered his officers to recruit as many soldiers as possible and to portray as a generous monarch; he distributed 5 Manns (about 35 kg) of gold among a crown in Kara.

Alauddin: The Sultan of Delhi

Alauddin Khilji

Amid a huge rain and flooded rivers, he started marching towards Delhi, and on 21 October 1296, Alauddin Khilji was formally proclaimed as the Sultan of Delhi. According to chronicler Ziauddin Barani, Alauddin’s first year as the Sultan of Delhi was the happiest year that the people of Delhi had ever seen.

Alauddin’s Expanding Empire

Alauddin Khilji Empire

During his reign, Alauddin expanded his kingdom to a vast area of the Indian Subcontinent. He conquered Ranathambor, Gujarat, Mewar, Jalore, Malwa, Mabar, Warangal and Madurai.

Alauddin Vs Mongol Invasions

Alauddin Khilji And Mongol Invasions

Every time the Mongols invaded the region, Alauddin defeated them. He defeated them in the battles of Jalandhar (1298), Kili (1299), Amroha (1305) and Ravi (1306). When some of the Mongol soldiers staged a mutiny, Alauddin’s administration devised brutal punishments to the mutineers’ families, including killings of children in front of their mothers.

Alauddin And Malik Kafur

It was during the invasion of Gujarat that he captured a slave named Malik Kafur (who later led Alauddin’s southern campaigns). Alauddin was the first Muslim King to conquer the Southern India. Malik Kafur helped him to conquer the Southern India.

Alauddin And Padmavati

Alauddin Khilji And Padmavati

Alauddin’s name appeared in connection with Padmavati in an epic poem titled “Padmavat” written by a 16th-century Sufi-poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi. According to Padmavat, Alauddin had his eyes on Rawal Ratan Singh‘s beautiful queen Padmavati, and to obtain her, he invaded Chittor (the capital of the Guhila kingdom ruled by Rawal Ratan Singh) in the winter of 1302-1303. Realising the defeat against Alauddin, Padmavati and Nagmati committed self-immolation (Sati) on Ratan Sen’s funeral pyre. However, the modern historians have rejected the authenticity of this story.

A Sultan Who Learnt From His Mistakes

Alauddin Khalji Militray Reforms

In 1301, during the siege of Ranthambore, Alauddin had to face 3 unsuccessful rebellions and to suppress further rebellions, he set up an intelligence and surveillance system and made his administration stricter. Around August 1303, Mongols launched another invasion of Delhi. Due to lack of enough preparations, Alauddin had to take shelter at the under-construction Siri Fort. The Mongol invasion of 1303, prompted Alauddin to stringent steps to prevent its repeat. He strengthened the military presence and forts along the Mongol routes to India. To maintain a strong army, and to ensure sufficient revenue inflow; he implemented a series of economic reforms.

He Used 8000 Mongol’s Heads To Build The Siri Fort

Siri Fort

In December 1305, Mongols invaded India again. Alauddin’s strong cavalry led by Malik Nayak defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Amroha. According to the 16th-century historian Firishta, heads of more than 8,000 Mongols were used to build the Siri Fort commissioned by Alauddin.

Alauddin’s Socio-Economic Reforms

Alauddin’s administration is known for different socio-economic reforms. The most important one is the agrarian reforms. A strong and efficient revenue administration system was set up, a large number of collectors, accountants, and agents were hired to administer the system. Under his administration, the officials were well paid. Alauddin had devised stringent punishments for the corrupt officials.

Alauddin’s Market Reforms

Alauddin Khilji Coins

Alauddin’s administration is also known for its market reforms and price control. He set up 3 separate markets in Delhi- one for food grains, the second for cloth and daily-use-items such as ghee, oil and sugar and the third market was for horses, cattle, and slaves. Alauddin fixed the prices of the commodities according to their values.

His Tax-System Is Still In Use

Another significant feature of Alauddin’s administration was the Tax System. According to The Cambridge Economic History of India- “Alauddin Khalji’s taxation system was probably the one institution from his reign that lasted the longest, surviving indeed into the nineteenth or even the twentieth century.” He enforced 4 taxes on non-Muslims- Jizya (poll tax), Kharaj (land tax), Ghari (house tax) and Charah (pasture tax).

Alauddin’s New Religion

According to chronicler Ziauddin Barani, Alauddin once thought of establishing a new religion.

His Last Days

During the last years of his life, Alauddin became very distrustful of his officers and sacked a number of his loyal officers. He was also suffering from an illness. He died in January 1316, and according to chronicler Ziauddin Barani, Malik Kafur conspired to murder Alauddin.

allauddin-khilji-biography-hindi

अलाउद्दीन खिलजी की जीवनी Biography of Alaauddin Khilji

अलाउद्दीन खिलजी भारत के प्रमुख शासकों में से एक है. उसने दिल्ली सल्तनत का प्रभाव काफी हद तक बढ़ा दिया था और अपने शासनकाल में कई नये काम किए जो तब तक भारत में नहीं किए गए थे.
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी की संक्षिप्त जीवनी
Short Biography of Alauddin Khilji 
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी दिल्ली पर काबिज खिलजी वंश का दूसरा और सबसे शक्तिशाली शासक था. उसका जन्म 1266 ईस्वी में हुआ. अलाउद्दीन की इच्छा थी कि वह भी सिकन्दर की तरह पूरी दुनिया को जीत ले. सिकन्दर से वह इतना प्रभावित था कि उसने अपने उप नाम में सिकन्दर को अपना लिया और कई सिक्को पर सिकन्दर नाम खुदवाया. वह दिल्ली के पहले खिलजी शासक जलालुद्दीन खिलजी का भतीजा था. जलालुद्दीन खिलजी उससे इतना प्रेम करता था कि उसने अपनी बेटी की शादी अलाउद्दीन से करके उसे अपना दामाद बना लिया. अलाउद्दीन खिलजी अपने चाचा जलालुद्दीन खिलजी की हत्या करके गद्दी पर बैठा. उसने कई युद्ध लड़े. चित्तौड़ पर उसने ही हमला किया था, जहां राणा रतनसिंह ने बहादुरी से उसका सामना किया और रानी पद्मावती ने 16 हजार महिलाओं के साथ जौहर किया था. 4 जनवरी 1316 को दिल्ली में उसकी मृत्यु हो गई.
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी का प्रारंभिक जीवन
Early Life of Alauddin Khilji
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी के जीवन के प्रारंभिक वर्षों की ज्यादा जानकारी नहीं मिलती है. खिलजी वंश के दिल्ली तख्त पर 1290 में स्थापित होते ही अलाउद्दीन के बारे में जानकारी मिलनी शुरू होती है. उस वक्त अलाउद्दीन का विवाह अपने चाचा की बेटी जलालुद्दीन की बेटी से होता है. अलाउद्दीन अपने चाचा जलालुद्दीन को बहुत प्यारा था. अपनी पत्नी और सास के साथ अच्छे रिश्ते न होने के बावजूद उसने जलालुद्दीन खिलजी के विश्वास को हमेशा बनाये रखा. उसकी सेवा से प्रसन्न होकर जलालुद्दीन खिलजी ने 1291 में उसे कारा का गवर्नर बना दिया. दरअसल कारा के पूर्व गवर्नर मलिक छज्जू ने सुल्तान के खिलाफ विद्रोह कर दिया, जिसे अलाउद्दीन खिलजी ने सफलता पूर्वक दबा दिया और इसी से खुश होकर सुल्तान ने कारा की जिम्मेदारी अपने दामाद अलाउद्दीन खिलजी को सौंप दी.
कारा में अपने शासन के दौरान अलाउद्दीन खिलजी को यह समझ में आ गया कि दिल्ली का सुल्तान एक कमजोर शासक है और लोग उससे खुश नहीं है. उसे गद्दी से हटाया जा सकता है लेकिन यह काम आसान नहीं था और इस काम को करने के एक षड़यंत्र रचा गया. इसके लिए उसने पड़ोस के हिंदू राज्यों पर हमला किया. पहला हमला 1923 में भिलसा पर किया गया. यहां मालवा के परमारों का शासन था जो पहले कई आक्रमणों के कारण कमजोर हो चुके थे. भिलसा से ढेर सारा धन बटोरने के बाद उसकी नजर दक्खन पर गई, जहां से उसे ढेरों पैसा मिलने की उम्मीद थी. अगला हमला उसने देवनागरी पर किया और जीत उसके हाथ लगी. इस जीत से खुश होकर दिल्ली के सुल्तान ने उसे अर्ज-ए-ममालिक यानि युद्ध का मालिक का खिताब दिया. साथ ही उसे अवध की नवाबी भी मिली. साथ ही सुल्तान ने उसे ज्यादा सेना रखने की छूट भी दे दी. सुल्तान जलालुद्दीन इस जीत की बधाई देने के लिए अलाउद्दीन से मिलने के लिए ग्वालियर आया, लेकिन अलाउद्दीन जीत में मिले पैसों को लेकर कारा की तरफ कूच कर गया.
सुल्तान के अमीरों ने सुल्तान को अलाउद्दीन को लेकर आगाह भी किया लेकिन सुल्तान को अपने सिपहासालार पर भरोसा था. कारा पहुंचने के बाद अलाउद्दीन ने सुल्तान को एक माफीनामा भेजा और सुल्तान से माफी की उम्मीद में एक खत की इच्छा जाहिर की. सुल्तान का विश्वास जीतने के बाद उसने अपनी योजना को आगे बढ़ाया और 1 हजार फौजियों की छोटी सी टुकड़ी लेकर सुल्तान से मिलने के गया और जलालुद्दीन की हत्या कर दी. अपने चाचा की हत्या करने के बाद उसके सिर को पूरे छावनी में घुमाया गया ताकि सब लोगों को यकीन हो जाए कि दिल्ली का सुल्तान मारा गया. 
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी का ताज पोशी Coronation of Alauddin Khilji
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी का वास्तविक नाम अली गुरशाप्स था लेकिन जब वह दिल्ली के सिंहासन पर बैठा तो उसने अपने आपको अलाउद्दीन वद् दीन मुहम्मद शाह अस सुल्तान की उपाधि दी. सुल्तान बनते ही अलाउद्दीन खिलजी ने प्रशासनिक व्यवस्था का विकेन्द्रीकरण किया और लोगों के काम आसानी से हो सके इसके लिए कई राजकीय अफसर और कर्मचारी नियुक्त किये और उन्हें अधिकार दिया गया. उसने वेतन पर सेना रखने की प्रथा शुरू की और अपने सिपाहियों को माहवार वेतन देना शुरू किया. उसके शासन में आम जनता को राहत मिलनी शुरू हुई. उसने प्रशासन मंे भी बहुत से सुधार किये. पहली बार बाजार मूल्य निर्धारित किया गया. जमीन सुधार किया गया और राशन प्रणाली शुरू की गई. अलाउद्दीन खिलजी के प्रशासनिक सुधारों को आगे आने वाले सुल्तानों शेर शाह सूरी और अकबर ने भी आगे बढ़ाया.
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी के युद्ध Wars fought by Alauddin Khilji
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी के जीवन का लंबा समय लड़ाई के मैदान में बीता. सुल्तान बनने के बाद जहां एक ओर उसने बाहर के आक्रमणकारियों को रोका वहीं दूसरी ओर अपने राज्य का विस्तार भी किया. अलाउद्दीन खिलजी के युद्धों को दो चरणों में बांटा जा सकता है. पहला चरण जो 1297 से 1306 तक चला, उसने मंगोलों को पीछे ढकेला और उत्तर भारत में नये इलाके जीते. दूसरे चरण में उसने मारवाड़ और दक्षिण भारत में युद्ध अभियान किये. दूसरा चरण 1307 से 1313 तक चला.
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी का चित्तौड़ युद्ध Chittorgarh War 
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी का सबसे प्रसिद्ध यु़द्ध चित्तौड़ के रावल रतनसिंह के साथ हुआ. इस युद्ध को उसने रानी पद्मिनी के लिए लड़ा. इसी युद्ध में उसे गोरा-बादल की वीरता देखने को मिली. इस युद्ध को अलाउद्दीन ने छल से जीता. इसी युद्ध ने राजपूती वीरता को इतिहास में स्थापित कर दिया. अलाउद्दीन युद्ध जीतकर भी हार गया. रानी पद्मावती जिन्हें रानी पद्मिनी भी कहा जाता है ने हजारों महिलाओं के साथ जौहर किया और राजपूत पुरूषों ने केसरिया बाना पहनकर अपने प्राणो का उत्सर्ग किया.
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी की मृत्यु Death of Alauddin Khilji
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी अपने आखिरी दिनों में बीमार रहने लगा और अपने अफसरों पर अविश्वास करने लगा. सारा शासन उसके गुलाम मलिक काफूर के हाथ में आ गया. 4 जनवरी, 1316 को लंबी बीमारी के बाद अलाउद्दीन खिलजी की मृत्यु हो गई.
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी का स्थापत्य Architecture of Alauddin Khilji 
अलाउद्दीन खिलजी ने बहुत से इमारतों का निर्माण करवाया. इसमें हौज-ए-अलाई, जिसे हौज खास के नाम से जाना जाता है प्रमुख है. यह एक तालाब था. उसने सिरी किले, अलाई दरवाजा और कुव्वत उल इस्लाम मस्जिद का भी निर्माण करवाया.
Why India Should Be Grateful to Alauddin Khilji

Alauddin Khilji was one of India’s greatest kings and one of the world’s greatest military geniuses.

He was born in Delhi in 1266 AD (and hence an Indian; not a foreign invader) and ruled as Sultan of Delhi from 1296 AD – 1316 AD.

Khilji greatly expanded the empire that he inherited from his uncle, Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji, after killing him. Because many of his conquests were of Hindu kingdoms, including the kingdoms of Chittor, Devgiri, Warangal (from where he acquired the famous Kohinoor diamond), Gujarat, Ranthambore, and the Hoysala and Pandya kingdoms, Khilji is often seen as a villain by Hindutva groups.

But, in fact, India owes a great debt to Alauddin Khilji.

This is because during his rule, the Mongols of the Chagatai Khanate invaded India. Khilji, by his military brilliance, managed to defeat the Mongols not once, but *five* times: in 1298 AD (led by Ulugh Khan, and inflicting 20,000 casualties on the Mongols), 1299 AD in Sindh (led by Zafar Khan), 1299 AD in Delhi (leading the army himself against the Mongols), 1305 AD (led by Malik Nayak, and inflicting 8000 casualties on the Mongols), and 1306 AD (led by Malik Kafur); and a “draw” in the sixth Mongol invasion of 1303 AD (again personally leading the army), where the Mongols were unable to defeat Khilji, but were able to sack Delhi.

This was a military feat unprecedented in those days, because the Mongols were an unstoppable force wherever else they went. No one in the rest of the world – whether the Russian Empire or the mighty Persian empire or the Baghdad Caliphate – could stand up to the dreaded Mongols. Khilji defeated them 5 times and had a draw in a 6th confrontation. The armies of the Delhi sultanate under Khilji were some of the most disciplined and well-trained in the world, and that is why they could defeat the Mongols time and again.

Now, people who do not know about the Mongols may ask at this point: “so what’s the big deal? A Muslim ruler whose ancestors were foreign invaders defeats another foreign invader!”

But that would betray a colossal ignorance of Mongol warfare.

The Mongols had a very peculiar way of conducting war. When they did conquer a country, they would raze it to ground. They used to leave nothing in that place – no trace of the civilization that existed there. They never settled in the place they conquered. They would take whatever of value they could back home to Mongolia (or, in the case of the Chagatai Khanate, Uzbekistan), especially what new technology they could find; they would take away women as slaves and kill the men, except those with special skills that they did not have and could use; and they would leave a wasteland behind. The Mongols did not just invade and conquer; they exterminated civilizations. There is a reason the Mongols were referred to as the “scourge of God.”

Had the Mongols conquered India, India would have been set back at least two or three hundred years in its development. All knowledge and culture that had been accumulated in India over millenia would have been destroyed. Every library, every school, every temple, every home would have been burnt to the ground. When Hulagu Khan of the Mongol Ilkhanate sacked Baghdad in 1258, he left the city largely depopulated. He destroyed all the great libraries of the Abbasid empire (it is said that the rivers turned black with ink because of the huge number of books the Mongols took from the libraries and threw in them), and blood was flowing in the Euphrates and Tigris for weeks after his assault. He single-handedly ended what is known as the Islamic Golden Age. A similar thing happened to Russia after the Mongols invaded it; it is considered that the Mongol invasion of Russia set it back by 200 years in its development.

So the Mongols were not like any other invader. If Khilji had lost to the Mongols, it would not have been as benign as when Ibrahim Lodi lost to Babur. In that case, one Muslim ruler was replaced by another, but India itself did not suffer greatly. If the Mongols had won against Khilji, they would have wiped Indian civilization off the map of the world. 

 

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