Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht مخدوم سید جہانیاں جہانگشت نقوی البخاری (b 1308- d 1384) was a famous Sufi saint from the South Asia. His descendants are known as Bukhari and are a prominent lineage of Suhrawardi Saadat. Makhdoom was born on 19 January 1308 AD (14 Shaban 707 AH) in Uch near Bahawalpur, Pakistan. His father, Syed Ahmed Kabir, was the youngest son of Hazrat Syed Jalaluddin Haider, better known as Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari, who came from Bukhara to what is now Pakistan in 630 AH (1232 AD).
Like his grandfather, his actual name was Jalaluddin, but due to his extensive travelling he acquired the title of Jahangasht, meaning “the world tourer”.
He completed his education in Uch and Multan. Since the arrival of Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari, his family had been the centre of Islamic propagation in South Asia and due to this prominent status Makhdoom was appointed Shaikh ul Islam by the king Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq. This was a lofty appointment however, Makhdoom left the job and set out for hajj by foot which was considered a noble way to express the devotion to Allah.
TRAVELS AND ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE
There are numerous mythical stories of his travels circulating around and they are obviously the fantasies of his overzealous devotees. Makhdoom spent twelve years in traveling and studying. During his seven years stay in Mecca he would study during the day and earn his living by writing the copies of Quran at night. He also stayed in Medina for two years where he was once given the honour of leading the prayers in Masjid al Nabawi. By the end of his travels he became a prolific scholar in the Islamic sciences and ascended to the higher pedestal of Islamic sainthood.
RELATIONS WITH FEROZE SHAH TUGHLAQ
After his return to South Asia, Makhdoom earned enormous respect in the eyes of the king, Feroz Shah Tughlaq, and developed close relations with him. This was a unique act of Makhdoom, as the saints of his time would usually distance themselves from kings.
Feroze Shah would go many miles out of his capital city to welcome Makhdoom when he would visit him every second or third year. When Makhdoom would enter the court of Feroze Shah, the King would stand up to show respect for Makhdoom and when he would leave the court the king would stand up and remain standing until Makhdoom would go out of his sight. People would give Makhdoom their requests for the king which Makhdoom would convey. The King would also offer Makhdoom presents and sums of money which Makhdoom would only accept to help the poor and needy. Makhdoom would spend all of that wealth in alms and charity.
TEACHINGS AND SAINTHOOD
Makhdoom was a Muslim saint belonging to the Suhrawardiyya Chain of Sufism. He gained profound fame throughout the South Asia. Many students would come to him for the advanced studies of Islam. Not only the students but many religious scholars and Islamic judges would also consult him for guidance. Makhdoom was a strict follower of shariat, saying that he who did not follow shariat in his speech and action could not become wali (the friend of God). He authored many books some parts of which have survived and are still a source of guidance for the posterity.
Many tribes in Sindh, Punjab and Gujarat embraced Islam due to the efforts and teachings of Makhdoom.
Makhdoom died at the age of seventy eight on 3 Feb 1384 (10 Zilhajj 785 AH). He is buried in Uch.
His mausoleum in Uch is still an attraction for thousands of devotees. There is a mosque called Masjid e Hajjaj near his mausoleum. It is said that Makhdoom would pray in the same mosque. Baba Fareed ul Din Ganj Shakarand Naseerudin Chiragh Dehlvi also observed Etikaf in this mosque. Bibi Jawindi’s mausoleum is a famous tourist attraction and is situated just next to the mausoleum of Makhdoom. She was the first cousin of Makhdoom being related to him as the daughter of his paternal aunt.
1. The enlightened should be so engaged that his ritual is not disrupted by association, society, or seclusion. People should be viewed as minerals. Practice and ritual should not be abandoned on account of people.
2. He who treads the path of spiritual perfection, should not allow anything else besides God to enter his heart.
3. An action that may not yield its fruit in this world will be of no consequence in the world hereafter.
4. The dervish, provided he follows the Holy Prophet ﷺ in speech, action and intention, is a saint but not otherwise.
5. Patience is of three kinds, namely, common, uncommon and most uncommon. Common patience implies controlling oneself when confronted with something unpleasant though it may appear difficult. Uncommon patience implies tolerating something unpleasant without a murmur. The most uncommon form of patience involves deriving pleasure when facing trouble or adversity.
6. Meditation implies the realisation that God knows everything about him and is observing him rather than just sitting down with one’s head bowed.
7. He who treads the spiritual path, unless and until he is freed from the lust of this world and the world hereafter, does not reach the place of unity.
8. Faith is of three kinds. One type relates to relying on outward manifestations, e.g., one may see the sky and think and ponder that it is hanging and is without pillars. There must be somebody who has made it. Hence, an individual must bring his faith to bear and believe it. The second type of faith is that of the follower. Whatever the Holy Prophet ﷺ has said must be believed to be true. The third type of faith relates to actually seeing; as when the glance of a saint is focused on heaven and hell, the throne and the chair, the slate and the pen he at once realises that there is someone who has created it. When this station is reached, one sees through asceticism undergone the vision of God Almighty by the eye of the heart.
9. There are two things for he who treads the spiritual path. The first is awareness and the second unconsciousness. He should therefore be ever watchful and aware lest he fall down and lower himself. This is indeed perfection.
10. He who treads the path of enlightenment occupies two stations, namely, the beginning and the extreme end. The beginning implies offering repentance in the correct way. It is done in two ways. One relates to the repentance offered for the sins against the shari’at and tariqat and to that offered for taking partners of God. The station of the extreme end is the realisation of God which implies achievement of the desired goal.
11. He indeed is not wise who is engrossed in the blessing and unmindful of the donor of the blessing.
12. Inner remembrance of God is with the heart and soul and not with the tongue, and opposed to it is outward remembrance of God.
13. To avert and to remove the will are different. A thing that does not exist is said to be averted and one that is in existence is said to be removed.
14. For perfect sainthood three things are necessary. Without these, sainthood is not possible. The first condition is that the person should be well-versed in the three branches of knowledge, namely, that of shari’at, tariqat, and haqiqat. The second condition is that the wise people of his time accept him and become his devotees and disciples. The third condition is that he seeks nothing except the vision of God.
15. Keep yourself away from illiterate Sufis because they are thieves of religion and the plunderers of Muslims.
16. For divine knowledge, piety is necessary as ablutions are necessary for prayers.
17. Piety is of three kinds, namely, common, uncommon, and the most uncommon. Common piety is that of refraining from idolatry, sin and superstitions. Uncommon piety is abstaining from things that cannot do good or causing injury. The most uncommon form of piety is that of abstaining from all but God.
18. He who treads the spiritual path should possess great courage and should not seek anything from God other than Him alone.
19. The seeker should take to seclusion so that he may rid himself of confused ideas and become calm and collected.
20. It is obligatory upon the faithful, that he should acquire knowledge first and subsequently engage himself in its practice.
21. The seeker cannot do without a spiritual guide and teacher.
22. The qualities characterising one walking the spiritual path are that he speaks and he is motionless; exists and does not exist, is present and is absent.
23. Contact with a saintly person or the company of a spiritual guide or the society of the one who has acquired divine knowledge is far better and more useful than to sit on the prayer carpet and be engaged in rituals.
24. Unless one has severed all worldly connections, one will not emerge victorious.
25. The saints are not afraid of any man or anything except God Almighty.
26. Every breath that passes bears the price of both worlds.
27. So long as abuse and praise of the people do not appear to be the same to him who is walking the spiritual path, he does not become perfect.
28. Satan is not afraid of a person who is disobedient.
29. He who treads the spiritual path should not talk of the stations which he has not reached.
30. Three acts are best, namely to sever connections with the world, to keep an eye on realities and to discover the universal truth. He who is not endowed with these three qualities cannot claim to be a Sufi.
31. In the beginning, there is nothing better for him who is treading the spiritual path than to take to seclusion.
32. Seclusion is best for the remembrance of God.
33. Learn knowledge of Shariah, shun innovation and follow the sunna.
34. The Sufi path (Tariqat) is nothing without adherence to Shariah.
35. Every seeker of the Sufi path should adhere to practice of the Holy Prophet ﷺ. It will help him attain a rapturous state and nearness to God.
36. He who does not follow sunna in his speech, conduct and actions cannot be a friend (wali) of God.
37. Flee from three kinds of person: The oppressive tyrant ruler who is oblivious to the Truth (God), learned men who attain knowledge only for worldly gain and ignorant Sufis who are thieves of the religion.
38. It is better to conceal acts of worship.
39. Keep your clothing safe from filth, your body from sin and heart from malice.
40. Divinely revealed knowledge of the Prophets is not transmitted to Auliya Allah unless they have knowledge of Fiqh, Hadith, theology etc. Knowledge of the Sufi path (Tariqat), in reality, is based on Shariah. No one can attain the reality of Tariqat and Haqiqat until he well-versed in his knowledge of Shariah.
41. There are three types of knowledge: Knowledge of sayings which is Shariah, knowledge of actions which is Tariqat, and knowledge of esoteric states which is Haqiqat.
42. It is tariqat to save the heart from the rancour of human beings.
43. It is haqiqat to save the heart from all else besides God.
44. It is shari’at to turn one’s face towards the qibla.
45. To turn one’s face towards God is tariqat and to be so absorbed constitutes haqiqat.
46. Seekers of the Sufi path should consume less meat. For instance, consumption of meat should be reduced to once a week. This will help to conquer the lower-self.
47. The seeker should eat lawful food and wear lawful clothing because if one grain of food or one fibre on a piece of clothing is unlawful, the journey would not be straight one.
48. The seeker should repeat the Kalimah (Declaration of faith) constantly. It causes spiritual elevation.
49. The seeker should take into account the following instructions. He should:i. Seek friendship of God through voluntary prayers ii. Reflect and meditate iii. Give advice to himself self before giving advice to others iv. Recite the Holy Quran consistently v. Obey the commands of the Holy Quran vi. Obey the decree of God Most High vii. Be aware that God sees His servants at all times viii. Spend whatever he gets ix. Try to attain union with God x. Be satisfied with littlexi. Be contented
50. The dervish who is indulged in carnal desires and lust is far from the arcane secrets of Reality.
51. The seeker cannot attain gnosis (Marifat) unless he takes the following things into account. He should: never tell a lie, avoid backbiting, never harm the creatures of God and be honest in all of his affairs and conduct.
52. There are four stages of Sufi path: nasut, malaqut, jabarut and lahut. Nasut is the world of beasts, malaqut is the angelic world, jabarut is the world of souls and lahut is the name of spacelessness. Nasut is the quality of lower-self and evils. When this quality is wiped out, the seeker arrives at the angelic world, malaqut. When he crosses this world, he reaches the stage of jabarut. This is the special quality of the soul and is near to divine pavilion. The last stage is lahut. Here the seeker of God attains divine qualities. He is absorbed in the Essence of God and finally realises al-Haqq or Truth.
53. The seeker should become a disciple of a spiritual guide (sheikh) otherwise he won’t progress. The disciple should spend time in the company of his sheikh since he is the radiant guide for him.
54. After Mecca the Exalted and Medina the Radiant, the soil of the Indian sub-continent is the most magnificent. This soil touched the feet of Adam.
55. To sleep in the morning is pitiful. It causes hardship and reduces one’s life span.
56. Family lineage shall not prove advantageous on the Day of Judgment. Only deeds will carry weight.
57. One who is endowed with inner enlightenment and prosperity (kamal) adopts humility and lowliness. He who is devoid of it adopts vanity and arrogance.
58. The seeker should combine his knowledge with action. If he does not do so, he is a fool.
59. One should not adopt spiritual retreat without knowledge.