हज़रत अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी
अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी प्रसिद्ध सूफ़ी संत हैं. उनका असली नाम अबुल हसन हैं, मगर ख़रक़ान में जन्म लेने की वजह से वे अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी के नाम से विख्यात हुए. सुप्रसिद्ध ग्रंथकार हज़रत शेख़ फ़रीदुद्दीन अत्तार के मुताबिक़ एक बार सत्संग में अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी ने बताया कि उन्हें उस वक़्त की बातें भी याद हैं, जब वे अपनी मां के गर्भ में चार महीने के थे.
अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी एक चमत्कारी संत थे, लेकिन उन्होंने कभी लोगों को प्रभावित करने के लिए अपनी दैवीय शक्तियों का इस्तेमाल नहीं किया. वे कहते हैं कि अल्लाह अपने यश के लिए चमत्कार दिखाने वालों से चमत्कारी शक्तियां वापस ले लेता है. उन्होंने अपनी शक्तियों का उपयोग केवल लोककल्याण के लिए किया. एक बार उनके घर कुछ मुसाफ़िर आ गए, जो बहुत भूखे थे. उनकी पत्नी ने कहा कि घर में दो-चार ही रोटियां हैं, जो इतने मेहमानों के लिए बहुत कम पड़ेंगी. इस पर अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी ने कहा कि सारी रोटियों को साफ़ कपड़े से ढककर मेहमानों के सामने रख दो. उनकी पत्नी ने ऐसा ही किया. मेहमानों ने भरपेट रोटियां खाईं, मगर वे कम न पड़ीं. मेहमान तृप्त होकर उठ गए, तो उनकी पत्नी ने कपड़ा हटाकर देखा, तो वहां एक भी रोटी नहीं थी. इस पर अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी ने कहा कि अगर और भी मेहमान आ जाते, तो वे भी भरपेट भोजन करके ही उठते.
वे बाहरी दिखावे में विश्वास न रखकर कर्म में यकीन करते थे. वे कहते हैं कि जौ और नमक की रोटी खाने या टाट के वस्त्र पहन लेने से कोई सूफ़ी नहीं हो जाता. अगर ऐसा होता, तो ऊन वाले और जौ खाने वाले जानवर भी सूफ़ी कहलाते. अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी कहते हैं कि सूफ़ी वह है जिसके दिल में सच्चाई और अमल में निष्ठा हो. वे शिष्य नहीं बनाते थे, क्योंकि उन्होंने भी स्वयं किसी गुरु से दीक्षा नहीं ली थी. वे कहते थे कि उनके लिए अल्लाह ही सब कुछ है. मगर इसके साथ ही उनका यह भी कहना था कि सांसारिक लोग अल्लाह के इतने करीब नहीं होते, जितने संत-फ़कीर होते हैं. इसलिए लोगों को संतों के प्रवचनों का लाभ उठाना चाहिए, क्योंकि संतों का तो बस एक ही काम होता है अल्लाह की इबादत और लोककल्याण के लिए सत्संग करना.
एक बार किसी क़ाफ़िले को ख़तरनाक रास्ते से यात्रा करनी थी. क़ाफ़िले में शामिल लोगों ने अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी से आग्रह किया कि वे उन्हें कोई ऐसी दुआ बता दें, जिससे वे यात्रा की मुसीबतों से सुरक्षित रहें. इस पर उन्होंने कहा कि जब भी तुम पर कोई मुसीबत आए, तो तुम मुझे याद कर लेना. मगर लोगों ने उनकी बात को गंभीरता से नहीं लिया. काफ़ी दूरी तय करने के बाद एक जगह डाकुओं ने क़ाफ़िले पर धावा बोल दिया. एक व्यक्ति जिसके पास बहुत-सा धन और क़ीमती सामान था, उसने अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी को याद किया. जब डाकू क़ाफ़िले को लूटकर चले गए, तो क़ाफ़िले वालों ने देखा कि उनका तो सब सामान लुट चुका है, लेकिन उस व्यक्ति का सारा सामान सुरक्षित है. लोगों ने उससे इसकी वजह पूछी, तो उस व्यक्ति ने बताया कि उसने अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी को याद कर उनसे सहायता की विनती की थी. इस वाक़िये के कुछ वक़्त बाद जब क़ाफ़िला वापस ख़रक़ान आया, तो लोगों ने अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी से कहा कि हम अल्लाह को याद करते रहे, मगर हम लुट गए और उस व्यक्ति ने आपका नाम लिया, तो वह बच गया. इस पर अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी ने कहा कि तुम केवल ज़ुबानी तौर पर अल्लाह को याद करते हो, जबकि संत सच्चे दिल से अल्लाह को याद करते हैं. अगर तुमने मेरा नाम लिया होता, तो मैं तुम्हारे लिए अल्लाह से दुआ करता.
एक बार वे अपने बाग की खुदाई कर रहे थे, तो वहां से चांदी निकली. उन्होंने उस जगह को बंद करके दूसरी जगह से खुदाई शुरू की, तो वहां से सोना निकला. फिर तीसरी और चौथी जगह से खुदाई शुरू की, तो वहां से भी हीरे-जवाहरात निकले, लेकिन उन्होंने किसी भी चीज़ को हाथ नहीं लगाया और फ़रमाया कि अबुल हसन इन चीज़ों पर मोहित नहीं हो सकता. ये तो क्या अगर दोनों जहां भी मिल जाएं, तो भी अल्लाह से मुंह नहीं मोड़ सकता. हल चलाते में जब नमाज़ का वक़्त आ जाता, तो वे बैलों को छोड़कर नमाज़ अदा करने चले जाते. जब वे वापस आते तो ज़मीन तैयार मिलती.
वे लोगों को अपने कर्तव्यों का निष्ठा से पालन करने की सीख भी देते थे. अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी और उनके भाई बारी-बारी से जागकर अपनी मां की सेवा करते थे. एक रात उनके भाई ने कहा कि आज रात भी तुम ही मां की सेवा कर लो, क्योंकि मैं अल्लाह की इबादत करना चाहता हूं. उन्होंने अपने भाई की बात मान ली. जब उनके भाई इबादत में लीन थे, तब उन्हें आकाशवाणी सुनाई दी कि ”अल्लाह ने तेरे भाई की मग़फ़िरत की और उसी के ज़रिये से तेरी भी मग़फ़िरत कर दी.” यह सुनकर उनके भाई को बड़ी हैरानी हुई और उन्होंने कहा कि मैंने अल्लाह की इबादत की, इसलिए इसका पहला हकदार तो मैं ही था. तभी उसे ग़ैबी आवाज़ सुनाई दी कि ”तू अल्लाह की इबादत करता है, जिसकी उसे ज़रूरत नहीं है. अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी अपनी मां की सेवा कर रहा है, क्योंकि बीमार ज़ईफ़ मां को इसकी बेहद ज़रूरत है.” यानी, अपने माता-पिता और दीन-दुखियों की सेवा करना भी इबादत का ही एक रूप है. वे कहते थे कि मुसलमान के लिए हर जगह मस्जिद है, हर दिन जुमा है और हर महीना रमज़ान है. इसलिए बंदा जहां भी रहे अल्लाह की इबादत में मशग़ूल रहे. एक रोज़ उन्होंने ग़ैबी आवाज़ सुनी कि ”ऐ अबुल हसन जो लोग तेरी मस्जिद में दाख़िल हो जाएंगे उन पर जहन्नुम की आग हराम हो जाएगी और जो लोग तेरी मस्जिद में दो रकअत नमाज़ अदा कर लेंगे उनका हश्र इबादत करने वाले बंदों के साथ होगा.”
अपनी वसीयत में उन्होंने ज़मीन से तीस गज़ नीचे दफ़न होने की ख़्वाहिश ज़ाहिर की थी. अबुल हसन ख़रक़ानी यह भी कहते थे कि किसी भी समाज को शत्रु से उतनी हानि नहीं पहुंचती, जितनी कि लालची विद्वानों और ग़लत नेतृत्व से होती है. इसलिए यह ज़रूरी है कि लोग यह समझें कि हक़ीक़त में उनके लिए क्या सही है और क्या ग़लत.
Hazrat Sayyidinā Alī bin Ahmad Khwājā Abul Hasan Kharaqānī quddis sirruhū (352-425 AH) was one of the greatest Sufi masters ever born. He was a spiritual student of Sultān al-Ārifīn Khwājā Bāyazīd Bastāmī, though he was born in 325 AH (963 CE), 64 years after the death of Sayyidinā Bastāmī (d. 261 AH).
Shrine of Hazrat Abul Hasan Kharaqani
Numerous Sufi masters benefited from him, and two of his khulafā (deputies) are the following:
Khwājā Abū Alī Fārmadī (d. 477 AH / 1084 CE)
Khwājā Abdullāh Ansārī (d. 481 AH / 1088 CE)
Khwājā Abdullāh Ansārī used to say: “In the science of Hadīth and Shariā, I have many teachers, but my master in Tasawwuf and Haqīqah is Shaykh Abul Hasan Kharaqānī. If I had not visited him, how would I have learned the Reality?”
Shaykh Kharaqānī had written this on the door of his khānaqāh: Whoever comes to this house, feed him and do not question him about his faith. For whoever is given life by Allah, deserves to eat from the table of Abul Hasan.
Farid al-Din Attar, a famous Persian poet and Sufi, devoted a large part of his book Tadhkiratul-Awliya (Biography of the Saints) about the personality, state and stories of Abul Hassan Kharaqani. Attar has called him as Sultān-e Salāteen-e Mashāyekh (The King of the kings of Sufi Masters), Ocean of the spiritual knowledge, Sun of the Lord, Mystery of the Lord and Qibla (focus of attention) of his people.
Abul Hassan Kharaqani was the Master or Shaikh of the famous Persian Sufi and poet, Khwajah Abdullah Ansari. Avicenna (Ibn Sina), Shah Mahmood of Ghazna, Abu-Saïd Abul-Khair and Nasir Khusraw had traveled to Kharaqan to meet him and expressed their deep admiring feelings and respect for him.
Mewlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī (Rumī), Farid al-Din Attar, Khwajah Abdullah Ansari, Jami and others have narrated many poems about Shaikh Abul Hassan and have reported his several stories.
He was illiterate but had wide inspirational knowledge about the Quran and Hadith; his sayings and speeches are significantly magnificent due to their philosophical views. He practiced Shafi`i sect, a school of Sunnite Islam.
This great luminary Sufi master passed away on 10th Muharram 425 AH (5/6 December 1033 CE). His holy shrine and final resting place is located in Kharaqān situated in Semnan province, Iran.
He had few sons, two of whom were named Hasan and Ahmad.
The next in the Naqshbandī Mujaddidī Tāhirī spiritual golden chain is Shaykh Abul-Qāsim Gurgānī.
Some of his sayings:
Shaikh Abul Hassan had written on the door of his khaneqah: “Anyone who comes to this house, give him food and do not ask about his faith. Because, as he merits a life next to the exalted God, no doubt he deserves a meal on my table.”
I feel, I hear, I speak, but I do not exist.
There are 24 hours in a day. I die a thousand times in an hour, and I cannot explain the other 23 hours.
People cannot describe me. No matter in which words or in which terms they present me, I am the opposite of what they say.
I am neither a Sufi, nor a scientist, nor a pious. O Lord, you are the one and only, and I am one of your oneness.
What if there were neither the Hell nor the Heaven, so that we could see the real devout person?!
A scholar wakes up early in the morning and seeks how to increase his knowledge. A pious wakes up and seeks how to increase his faith. But Abul-Hassan looks for how to make a human being happy.
The one who said “I reached Allah (to the God, to the Truth and Reality)”, he did not. And the one who said “He (God) himself made me reach him”, he reached Allah (or he attained the reality).
He was asked: “Where did you see the God?” He answered: “… wherever I did not see my own self.”
Whatever exists in the entire universe, it is also in your own heart. You have to gain the ability to see it.
The one who fell in Love found Allah. And the one who found Allah, forgot his own self.
In the whole world only one person could understand me, and it was Bayazid.
THE STORY OF HAZRAT SHAH ABUL-HASAN KHARQANI (R.A.)
Once a, true dervish (seeker after truth) undertook a long journey from Taliqaan to Khaarqaan in order to pay a visit to Hazrat Shah Abul-Hasan Kharqani (RA.). Along this journey he had to cross many mountains and valleys. Along the way he bore great difficulties like thirst, but he endured all that patiently for the sake of his love. In this dervish there was such restlessness and longing for divine love that it forced him to take up this journey. Such is the way of love. What happens in the case of Divine Love? It has a different effect upon different people.
“What word did you utter in the ear of the flower
That it now laughs in pleasure.
And what did you mention to the nightingale
That now through the pains of love it weeps and laments?”
My Sheikh Maulana Phulpoori (RA.) used to tell me a story about a great Majzoob Soofi who used to live somewhere in the rural district. The condition of ‘Qabz’ descended on him from Allah’s side. In the technical terms ‘Qabz’ is such a condition which the Soofi feels when he experiences spiritual inactivity, non-progress, depression and a lessening in the presence of Allah. His heart feels no joy in ibaadah and it seems as if there is no pleasure derived from Zikr. This condition is sent over to a devotee with the sole purpose of a spiritual training towards the acquisition of his spiritual progress. If the devotee should at all times enjoy the feeling of Allah’s nearness, then there is the possibility of pride and arrogance being created within him which could be the cause of his spiritual destruction. Allah dislikes all sins from His bondsmen but the most hated characteristic that He disapproves from them is that of pride and arrogance.
Hence, the experience of ‘Qabz’ brings the devotee towards humility which in Allah’s sight is a very well-liked characteristic. Man is a bondsman (slave) of Allah, an ‘abd’. In the word ‘abd’, the meaning of humility and distressed state are included. Hence for someone to be an ‘abd’ slave of Allah and at the same time to have in him pride or arrogance, is a contradiction and the cause of great loss.
“Allah has created you from dust, hence a bondsman,
Adopt an attitude of meekness and humility like dust.”
Sometimes, it also happens that the feeling of ‘Qabz’ comes about as a result of some sins being committed. Through these sins, darkness is created in the heart as a result of which no pleasure is felt in the performance of the ibaadat. But no matter what the cause of ‘Qabz’ may be, much seeking of forgiveness (istighfaar) proves to be very beneficial.
My Sheikh Hazrat Phulpoori (RA.) said: “No matter how strong the feelings of ‘Qabz’ one may feel, no matter how deep the feeling of darkness in the heart and the spiritual inactivity one may feel and no matter if this condition lasts for years, in order to combat it, one must daily make wudoo and then perform two rak’ ahs nafal salaah with the intention of ‘toubah’. Thereafter proceed into sujood and in utter humility, grief and crying before Allah make ‘istigfaar’ and then recite this Wazeefa 360 times:
“Ya Hayyum, Ya Qayyum,
La ilaha illa ant a Subhaanaka innee kuntu minaz Zaalimeen”.
“0 Living God, 0 Self Subsisting One, there is no God save Thee. Verily I have been of the unjust ones.”
In this Wazeefa we have the words ‘Ya Hayyu, Ya Qayyum’. These are two Holy Names of Allah and in the Hadith it has been mentioned as being the Ismul-A’zam – ‘The Great Name of Allah’. This is followed by that verse of the Quran which Nabi Yunus (A.5.) recited and through its recitation, he was saved from three layers of darkness. The first layer of darkness was the darkness of night. The second layer of darkness was the darkness within the’ water and the third one was the darkness within the belly of the fish. To explain Nabi Yunus’s (A.S.) condition in the three darknesses, the Quran says ‘Wa huwa Kazeem’: ‘He was depressed’ .
‘Kazm’ is an arabic term that is given to that feeling of distress in which a person remains quiet.
Through the blessings of this verse, Allah saved Nabi Yunus (A.5.) from sorrows and thereafter Allah announced: “Wa Katha lika nun-jil mu meneen”. And so we save the believers’.
This shows that from that day until Qiyamat, this verse had been revealed as a treatment for driving off sorrows and affliction. Any believer, when in trouble and encountering calamities, habitually and profusely shall recite this verse, he will surely be saved.
In this verse, there is mention of Allah’s Glory and also an admission of one’s own nothingness and unworthiness. Further, there is also a measure of the expression of grief and regret which is tantamount to toubah (repentance). In fact, it is the most important ingredient of Repentance. After reciting this verse, one must then recite Durood Shareef three times.
The story being told was about a saintly man living in the rural areas who was suffering from a very heavy form of ‘Qabz’. It so happened that the nearness he felt towards Allah became clouded like clouds over the sun. He went from one place to another crying in sorrow over the loss of Allah’s communion. He went about crying and lamenting the loss of his condition:
“My Beloved, just like cooked dhall without rice, is tasteless,
So also are the days of my life in Thy absence.
Through sorrow the days of my life seem foreign to me
And my nights and days are suffering in parting from Thee.
O My Beloved, through Thy parting my days are bitter And from my soul my comfort has been removed.”
When my Murshid used to relate this story, the tears used to stream from his eyes and a strange condition used to descend upon him. It is true that the pleasure of love should be heard from the one who experiences such love and knows the pains involved therein. “How can one without pain know the ecstasy of such pain?”
In any case, we were talking about a dervish undertaking a long and arduous journey to meet his Murshid, Shah Abul-Hasan Kharqani (R.A.). After this long and arduous journey he finally reached Khaarqaan. After making enquiries from various people, he finally reached the house of his Sheikh. He knocked on the door. At the time Hazrat Shah Saheb (R.A.) was not at home. He had gone towards the forest to fetch some wood. From inside the house, Shah Saheb’s wife enquired: “Who is there?” He replied: “1 am a Musaafir, who has travelled a long journey with the sole purpose of visiting Shah Saheb”. The wife was a woman with a bad and quick temperament. When she heard about the traveller’s love and confidence in the Sheikh, she became very angry and said: “0 Man, have you no other work in this world than to undertake such a long journey with so much difficulty and all that pain and effort for something useless?” .
She then continued to criticise Hazrat Shah Saheb (RA.) in such insulting words that it would be inappropriate even to mention them. When the Mureed heard these words from the Sheikh’s wife, he could not restrain himself and said: “If you did not have a marriage relationship with Hazrat Sheikh (R.A.), then I would tear your body to pieces. But you are the wife of that Great Devoted A reef of Allah. Therefore, I will refrain from any rudeness. ”
The traveller then departed from the house and enquired from the people the whereabout of the Sheikh. Someone informed him that the Sheikh had gone to the forest to fetch wood. In his love for the Sheikh, the mureed went in that direction. On the way he thought to himself:
“Such a great and famous Sheikh and he has such a bad-tempered wife. I do not know how such a bad-tempered wife can be blessed with the company of such a man”. While those thoughts were passing through his mind, he saw someone coming along on the back of a lion with a bundle of wood. It was none other than the saint of that time, Hazrat Shah Abul-Hasan Kharqani (RA.). When the Sheikh saw the Mureed he burst out laughing. He realised that the words of the wife have made him sad and depressed. He said:
“If my patience did not bear the bitterness of a bad-tempered woman,
Then why would this lion now carry me around?
I bear the many heavy burdens and difficulties caused by this foolish woman
And these are all borne for Allah’s sake as mujahadah,
Because I am beloved and accepted amongst men
And the honour of men causes pride to be created in me.
Thus my pride and arrogance is treated for me by this woman
Through her insulting ways and ill-tempered manner.”
Allah is the Lord of this world. From Him alone comes both the outward and inner fostering of men. Thus for the inner fostering of any devotee, He produces the means towards the unseen ways of fostering. He handles every devotee according to his measure of tolerating sorrows and bearing them, No matter how purified a person’s self may be, there always exists the danger of a relapse towards evil.
“The nature of the self is like Fir-aun.
Be not satisfied with it
Whenever you become unmindful of it,
It remembers its previous Kufr.”
My Sheikh Maulana Phulpoori (RA.) told me a story about a certain saintly man. His maid servant, having seen him for quite some time eating chicken and dressed in splendid clothes, began wondering: “What kind of Holy man is this who at all times lives a life of comfort and never experiences any difficulties?”
The maid servant informed the Sheikh about her doubts: “Sir, I have heard that the saints of Allah are made to bear great burdens and calamities while on Allah’s path. Then in reply to that they become blessed with the great blessing of Wi lay at (sainthood). But I see you at all times eating chicken and dressed in splendid clothes”. The Saint on hearing these words uttered one sigh and replied: “Remove my clothes from my back”. When she lifted the clothes from his back she saw a huge running sore on his back from which pus was all the time being exuded. This sore was all the time giving the Sheikh much pain and trouble. Seeing this the servant became quite ashamed and asked for pardon for her misconception.
Thus we see that there are times when the saintly ones will joke and jest. They will sometimes wear splendid clothes, eat splendid food, accept the invitations from friends and people will press and kiss their hands and feet but ask their hearts what passes through them:
“On my lips there is always a smile and my eyes too are not wet with tears, But, the continuous tears of my heart, no one knows.”
Lesson from this Story
From this story, we learn that if involuntarily some calamity or misfortune befalls us we should not be unduly worried because in exchange for that misfortune and sorrow, Allah grants such a bounty that is so much greater than the calamity.
Sometimes, a small calamity can be the cause of being saved from a major calamity. Just as in this story we see how the ill temper of the wife proved to be a saviour for Hazrat Shah Saheb (RA.) from pride and arrogance.
However, one should not seek misfortunes or wish for calamities but should at all times pray for well-being: “0 Allah, we are weak and do not possess the strength to bear misfortunes. I am begging of You for general well being.”
When we pray we should always pray for Aafiyah (well-being) but should also remember that whatever conditions Allah sends over us we should be satisfied therewith and should also at all times pray that Allah keep calamities far away from us.