Hazrat Ziauddin Barani r.a


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Hazrat Ziauddin Barani r.a, born at Baran (Buland-Shahr) In
684 A.H. / 1258 A.D, was the first Indo-Persian historian to
be born and brought up in India* He completed his Tarikh-IFiruz
Shahi at the age of seventyfour. Since he completed his
Tarikh in the year 758 A.H/1359 A.D, he must have.been born in
or about the year 684 A.H / 1285 A.a. in Ghyasuddin’s reign.
After the conquest of Baran by Md. Ghori, it is
probable that Barani’s family along with others settled there.
It is testified by Mir Khurd that Hazrat Ziauddin Barani r.a came of respectable
ancestors. The father of his maternal grand mother Sipah-salar
Husamuddin held an important post in the Court of Balban, and
later on he was appointed Governor of Lakhnauti in Bengal. His
mother was the daughter of Sayyid Jalal ICaithali. His father
Muwayyadul Hulk was a deputy governor and Khwajah of the
province of Baran for 17 years. Hazrat Ziauddin Barani r.a himself held the
post of royal nadim in the Court of Md. b. Tughluq who often
consulted him on crucial matters. His uncle, Alaul Mulk who
helped Alauddin in his assassination coup of Jalaluddin was made
governor of Kara and Oudh by Alauddin Khalji, later Muwayyadul-
Mulk was appointed the governor of Baran and Alaul Mulk was made a Kotwal of Delhi.
He gives the names of forty six renowned teachers of Alauddin*s
time whose learned discourses and associations elevated his
mental dimensions. Being deeply influenced by the audience of
Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya he as a mask of devotion took up his
abode at Ghyathpur where the Shaikh lived. He was on equally
good terms with Amir Khusrau whom he calls *the greatest of all
ancient and modern poets.

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Hazrat Ziauddin Barani r.a was born to a Muslim family in 1285 in which his father, uncle, and grandfather all working in high government posts under the Sultan of Delhi. His family were natives of Meerut and Bulandsahar. His maternal grandfather Husam-ud-Din, was an important officer of Ghiyas ud din Balban and his father Muwayyid-ul-Mulk held the post of naib of Arkali Khan, the son of Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji. His uncle Qazi Ala-ul-Mulk was the Kotwal (police chief) of Delhi during the reign of Ala-ud-Din Khalji.Hazrat Ziauddin Barani r.anever held a post, but was a nadim (companion) of Muhammad bin Tughlaq for seventeen years. During this period he was very close to Amir Khusro. After Tughlaq was deposed, he fell out of favor. In “Exile” he wrote two pieces dealing with government, religion, and history.

His gravestone lies in the courtyard of Nizamuddin Auliya’s dargah in Delhi, at the entrance of the dalan of Mirdha Ikram, and near the tomb of Amir Khusrau.

  • Tareekh e Firoz shahi
  • Fatwa-i-Jahandari
  • Salvat-i-Kabir (The Great Prayer)
  • Sana-i-Muhammadi (Praises of Prophet Mohammad)
  • Hasratnama (Book of Regrets)
  • Tarikh-i-Barmaki
  • Inayat Nama-i-Ilahi (Book of Gods Gifts)
  • Maasìr Saadat (Good Deeds of the Sayyids)
  • Lubbatul Tarikh

जीवन परिचय

ज़ियाउद्दीन बरनी का जन्म 1285 ई. में सैय्यद परिवार मे हुआ था। ज़ियाउद्दीन बरन (आधुनिक बुलन्दशहर) के रहने वाले थे, इसीलिए अपने नाम के साथ बरनी लिखते थे। इनका बचपन अपने चाचा ‘अला-उल-मुल्क’ के साथ व्यतीत हुआ, जो अलाउद्दीन ख़िलजी के सलाहकार थे। संभवतः बरनी ने 46 विद्धानों से शिक्षा ग्रहण की थी। ज़ियाउद्दीन बरनी को मुहम्मद तुग़लक़ के शासन काल में 17 वर्ष तक संरक्षण में रहने का सौभाग्य प्राप्त हुआ था। फ़िरोज़शाह तुग़लक़ के शासन काल में उन्हें कुछ समय तक जेल में भी रहना पड़ा।


अनुश्रुत प्रमाण और दरबार के अपने व्यक्तिगत अनुभवों के आधार पर बरनी ने 1357 में तारीख़-ए-फ़िरोज़ शाही (फ़िरोज़ शाह का इतिहास) लिखा, एक उपदेशात्मक पुस्तक, जिसमें भारतीय सुल्तान के इस्लाम के प्रति कर्त्तव्यों का उल्लेख किया गया है। सूफ़ी रहस्यवाद से प्रभावित अपनी पुस्तक, फ़तवा-ए जहांदारी (संसारिक सरकार के नियम), में बरनी ने इतिहास के धार्मिक दर्शन का प्रतिपादन किया, जो महान् व्यक्तियों के जीवन की घटनाओं को दौवी विधान की अभिव्यक्ति मानता है। बरनी के अनुसार, ग़यासुद्दीन बलबन (शासनकाल, 1266-87) से लेकर फ़िरोज़शाह तुग़लक़ (शासनकाल,1351-88) ने अच्छे इस्लामी शासक के लिए उनके द्वारा दिए गए दिशा-निर्देशों का पालन किया और फले-फूले, जबकि उन नियमों का उल्लंघन करने वाले असफल रहे।


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