Sayyiduna Khwaja Shaykh Muhammad Sadiq al-Naqshbandi Rahimahullah of Gulhar Sharif Kotli Azad Kashmir
This branch (al-Bakri al-Siddiqi) originally ruled Yemen and left its governance in order to spread the Din. This love for the Din and knowledge brought them out of the Arabian Peninsula and into Iran, Hindustan and finally Kashmir.
Rasul Allah صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم said,
“When Allah loves some person, He sends for Jibril and commands him: Verily, I love such and such a person; you should also love him, so Jibril loves him as well. Then Jibril proclaims in the heavens that Allah loves such and such a person; you should also love him. Then the residents of the heavens love him as well. Then his love is sent down to the earth (the world)”
Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and Musnad Ahmad.
The theme of this Hadith Sharif beautifully manifests itself in the person of Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہعلیہ .
His fame has not only spread in Azad Kashmir and Pakistan but also in Arabia and non-Arab lands. The hand of nature (God) carved him like a precious diamond and from whatever angle one observes one sees a new colour and a new shape. His physical appearance, life, speech, character, movements, habits, virtues and manners, indeed, whichever aspect one observes, one cries out: “His every action pulls the heartstrings.” The Divine Will operates in mysterious ways and creates reasons to bring about its purpose. It was the Divine Will that appointed Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہعلیہ to turn Kotli into a centre of guidance. Through Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہعلیہ the people of Kotli were taken out of the darkness and in to the light and for this favour they can never thank Allah enough. Due to Hazrat Sahib’s efforts every home in this area became familiar with the Din.
Some of our friends do not know the lineage of Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ and for their information a summary of his ancestors is provided. Hazrat Khwaja Muhammad Sadiq رحمت اللہ علیہ known as ‘Hazrat Sahib’ رحمت اللہعلیہ is of pure Arab ancestry and a descendent of Hazrat Abu Bakr al-Siddiq’s رضی اللہ عنہ eldest son Hazrat Abd al-Rahman رضی اللہ عنہ . His genealogy links him with Sayyiduna Abu Bakr al-Siddiq رضی اللہ عنہ through 37 generations. This branch of the family was always interested in knowledge and spreading the Din. Seven generations after Hazrat Abu Bakr al-Siddiq رضی اللہ عنہ , his descendent, Hazrat Ahmad bin Mahmud رحمت اللہ علیہ became the ruler of Yemen. His fourth successor, Hazrat Kamal al-Din Muhammad Yemeni رحمت اللہ علیہ(whose students include Shaykh Baha al-Din Zakariyya Multani تمحر اللہ ہیلع ), left his rule in Yemen and settled in Madinah al-Munawwarah and for fifty years taught Hadith Sharif in the neighbourhood of the Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم . He was later appointed as the Qadi of Sistan in Iran. This position was occupied by his descendents for the next six generations.
The Arrival of His Great Ancestor to the Indo-Pak Subcontinent Hazrat Shaykh Qiwam al-Din bin Husam al-Din رحمت اللہ علیہ was the first ancestor of Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ to enter Hindustan. He was the seventeenth descendent of Hazrat Abu Bakr al-Siddiq رضی اللہ عنہ and the sixth descendent of Hazrat Kamal al-Din Muhammad Yemeni رحمت اللہ علیہ . In 700 A.H /1300 CE at the request of the Tughluq Sultans he arrived with his nephews in Delhi. Prior to his arrival in Delhi he was the Qadi of Jjnayr in Sistan in the kingdom of Iran. In Delhi he received khilafat from Hazrat Nizam al-Din Awliya رحمت اللہ علیہ . The King of the time appointed him as the Qadi (judge) and sent him to Rohtak (Haryana District); which is located seventy kilometres North West of Delhi. He and his wife Ayn al-Badr bint Qadi Sultan Muhammad Surkh Dhu al-Qarni رحمت اللہ علیہ are buried in the fort in Rohtak. This fort was constructed by the Yemeni Shuyukh under the supervision of Qadi Sultan Muhammad Surkh Dhu al-Qarni رحمت اللہ علیہ . Until 1947 his descendents lived in the village called Mehm, thirty kilometres from Rohtak in their regal forts (due to the al-Bakri al-Siddiqi family this area was named Mehm Sharif). These forts are mentioned by Abu al-Fadl in his book A’ain-e Akbari (p.922-1003).
The Family’s Contributions and Achievements
“Some members of this family held prominent posts under the Pathan Sultans of Delhi and the Mughal Emperors. In addition, the family played an important role in the conversion and the transformation of the Rajputs in the districts of Hisar, Rohtak, Karnal and Gurgoan.
The Imperial Coronation Delhi Darbar, 1911 printed in Madras (p.381)
During the Muslim rule this al-Bakri al-Siddiqi branch continually occupied places of knowledge, honour, spirituality and leadership. The family held the post of the local Qadi (judge), Mufti, (authority on religious rulings) Muhtasib, (inspector) Amir-e Adl (chief justice), Khatib (orator) of Friday and Eid prayers. In addition they had held high offices in both civil and military ranks at a national level. They also contributed greatly in the fields of literature, education and propagating Islam in the surrounding districts of Delhi: Rohtak, Gurgoan, Hisar, Karnal and so forth. They also played an important part in the conversion and guidance of Hindu,Jats and Rajputs and some other tribes to Islam.
The Period of Tribulation
A few years after the British East India Company took full control of Hindustan, they changed the administrative language and the system of governance, consequently the function of the Qazi and Mufti was terminated. And, in accordance with the Third Act of 1838 Section Five, all of their land grants were confiscated and the office holders (Qazi and Mufti) were made redundant. As for their role in the Battle of Independence in 1857, this family was branded the leaders of the rebels and subsequently fourteen prominent members of the family were martyred. Their homes were dug up to two feet deep in order to find weapons and consequently numerous relics and artefacts that had been in the family’s possession for centuries were stolen by the soldiers. The walls of their fort were demolished. Despite all these destructions the government was not able to stop the religious efforts of this family as it continued to teach and spread Islam. During the British Raj the financial situation of the family was adverse. Although a few were wealthy, most were at the mercy of local petty rulers. During the 138 years of the British Raj this family’s recognition was in the field of knowledge and nobility.
According to the 1880 Census of the Rohtak District, there were just eighteen Christians from the indigenous population and half of the fourteen per cent of the Muslim population comprised of people whose ancestors had recently converted to Islam. The historical achievement of the al-Bakri al-Siddiqi family of the Rohtak District was that they prevented people from being converted to Christianity despite the fact that they (Christians) were openly supported by the British government. Due to the efforts of this family one European Officer stationed at Delhi converted to Islam and thousands of Jats, Rajputs, Kai’sath, Jogis and so forth also embraced to Islam.
During the British Raj the writers from this family made valuable contributions in the field of Urdu literature; composing and translating works on Sufism, Jurisprudence, Medicine, Critique, History, Biographies, Biography of the Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم , Law, Philosophy, Ethics, Politics, Astronomy, Municipal administration, Logic, Literature, Morphology, Syntax, Dictionaries, Comparative Religions and so forth.
The contributions of the family were mentioned in the report of the Delhi Darbar held in 1911. “This family has occupied prominent offices generation after generation for many centuries. Some members of this family simultaneously held key posts such as Qazi, Chief Justice, Muhtasib, Mufti, Mutawalli (guardian) and Khatib.”
For one family to hold prominent posts for five centuries clearly suggests that this family possessed qualities such as knowledge, wisdom and administrative skills. In the field of politics the family played an important part in the independence movement of India and Pakistan. During the partition of 1947 one tenth of the Muslim population of Rohtak was martyred and the rest were forced to flee to Pakistan. Presently most of the descendents of Shaykh Qiwam al-Din Rohtaki are settled in Pakistan.
The Arrival of a Beloved Son of the al-Bakri al-Siddiqi Family to the State of Jammu and Kashmir
The ruler of Mirpur, Sultan Fateh Muhammad Khan Ghakkar تمحر اللہ ہیلع , received the title of (Sultan) from the Mughal Emperor Awrangzaib Alamgir رحمت اللہ علیہ. He founded the area called Fatehpur and also ruled Chalayar and the present district of Kotli (1051 A.H/1640 C.E). He had the history of the Ghakkars written entitled: Tarikh Fateh Khani, which contained authentic accounts of the period. It was on his request that Qazi Fath Allah Qadri Shattari Rohtaki رحمت اللہ علیہcame to Mirpur as the Chief Judge and settled there. In this way the service for the Din led this al-Bakri al-Siddiqi branch from Makkah Sharif, Madinah Sharif, Yemen, Sistan (Iran), Hindustan and finally to Mirpur.
Sultan Fateh Muhammad Khan Ghakkar رحمت اللہ علیہwas a very pious and God fearing person. He married his daughter off to Hazrat Qazi Fath Allah, who subsequently moved from Rohtak to Mirpur where he built the city’s first mosque. He was travelling to Delhi and whilst en route he died on 16th October 1677 in an area called Dar Samalaka (Panipat). His body was brought back to Mirpur with a royal escort and laid to rest in the family cemetery. This spiritual centre (shrine) remained intact until the onslaught of the Sikhs. When the Sikhs took control of Mirpur this family suffered persecution like other Muslims. After the Sikh occupation of the state, some surviving members of the family which included the great-great grandfather of Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ , Qadi Muhammad Akbar Ali رحمت اللہ علیہ , moved to a village called Checheyan Sharif, North West of Mirpur. In 1967 this area became submerged under the Mangla Lake and so the family had to migrate once again. One branch of the family led by Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہmoved to Kaladeo, Jhelum, whilst other members of the family moved to Chitarparhi and Dina. Nowadays Hazrat Sahib’s family is settled in two places: Jhelum, Kaladeo Sharif and Kotli, Azad Kashmir, Gulhar Sharif. Both of these centres provide spiritual guidance for needy people. The Shrine of Qadi Fath Allah Qadri Shattari تمحر اللہ ہیلع , remained a place of pilgrimage until the construction of the Mangla Dam following which it became submerged under water. This situation remained for the next eighteen years. Subsequently, for the convenience of pilgrims, on jum’a 8th February 1985 his blessed body was moved to Jami’a al-Firdous, Gulhar Sharif, Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir and this became his third place of burial.
The Blessed Birth
Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ was born in Checheyan Sharif near Fatehpur and according to reliable sources his birth took place on 25th December 1921 on Friday/Saturday night at dawn.
Glad Tidings about His Birth
Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ was meditating according to his normal practice at the grave of his father Qazi Muhammad Rukn Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ in the family cemetery. In his state of total absorption he saw his father emerge with a child in his hands and he placed the child in Qibla Alam’s lap and said, “Take Muhammad Sadiq.” This glad tiding remained a secret but an incident occurred which forced it to be revealed. At the age of six Hazrat Sahib was enrolled under the name Muhammad Sadiq رحمت اللہ علیہat the primary school in Ladar. It is human nature to like new things and so when Hadrat Sahib رحمت اللہعلیہ heard the names of his fellow pupils he felt his name should be changed. A request was put forward to Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ and he declined it saying, “My dear father chose this name for you and I would not dare to change it.”
Once Sufi Faujdar Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ a senior deputy of Qibla Alam رحمت اللہعلیہ visited Checheyan Sharif, Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ said to him, “A very honourable guest shall arrive soon.” Sufi Faujdar Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ enquired, “Will we get the opportunity to see him?” Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ replied, “Yes, many times.” Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ stated that the guest would be called Muhammad Sadiq رحمت اللہعلیہ . Six months later Sufi Faujdar Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ went to congratulate Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ (on the birth of a son). And after the Asr prayer, Qibla Alam said to Sufi Faujdar Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ , “The great personality whose arrival we had mentioned is here, let’s go and see him.” He then took Sufi Faujdar Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ downstairs where Qibla Mai Sahiba lived.
Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ went inside and brought a baby in his hands and said,
“This is the person we had mentioned to you.” When Sufi Faujdar Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ saw the face of the baby he observed, “Whatever Qibla Alam had mentioned about him was evident in the child’s face.”
Ba’iyat and Khilafat
Due to Qibla Alam’s spiritual concentration (tawajjuh), Qibla Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ attained all the necessary qualities required for spiritual development. He took ba’iyat from Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ in his childhood and was given the necessary awrad to read. Apart from the training at home, Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ used to take him on journeys with him and train him accordingly. In this way the foundation of the Path was laid which would later lead to perfection. Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ granted him permission and khilafat in his own lifetime.
Qibla Hazrat Sahibرحمت اللہ علیہ became an orphan at the age of twelve years and four months and fourteen days hence his noble mother Qibla Mai Sahiba, who was an institution by herself, played a pivotal role in his spiritual development. After the demise of his noble father his nurture and development was done under his mother’s supervision, who guided him for fifty years. Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ acknowledged that whatever he had achieved after his father’s demise was due to the tawajjuh of his noble mother. Some sincere and senior Sangis of Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ such as Sufi Faujdar Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ and Miyan Sattar Muhammad رحمت اللہ علیہ also assisted Hadrat Sahib’s spiritual development. Due to his piety and exceptional spiritual struggles (mujahidat) Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ attained the highest rank in taqwa and the station of the beloved.
As far as religious education was concerned Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ inherited a love for knowledge from his ancestors. According to the family custom his education began at home at an early age. His first teacher was his father who taught him the basic tenets of Islam. As for the conventional education he was enrolled at the primary school in Ladar, where the head teacher was Chaudary Nawab al-Din of Tahtahi Kasgumma. Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ studied there until the fourth grade (in those days the primary education was up to fourth grade). Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ would wait outside the village to receive him at the end of the school day. For further education he was enrolled in the Government High School in Old Mirpur. In one conversation Hadrat Sahib mentioned that one of his teachers was a Hindu called Budhraj who used to teach English. Whilst Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ was in the sixth grade his father passed away and thus his school education ended. Outwardly it would seem that it was the demise of Qibla Alam رحمت اللہ علیہ which put an end to his school education but in reality destiny had planned something else for him.Sometime later in the village called Agro, he studied books on Farsi with Hakim Miyan Muhammad Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہ . Afterwards he began his studies with the leading scholar of the time Hazrat Mawlana Muhammad Abd Allah of Ladar, who according to some had mastered fourteen and according to others twenty six different sciences. He had travelled on foot to Haramain Sharifain (Makkah and Madinah Sharif) in order to gain knowledge. He studied with the leading scholars of the time such as Shaykh Mawlana Nur Ahmad رحمت اللہ علیہ (who was originally from Pakhal and had settled in Makkah Sharif and taught there). He studied the leading books on Arabic syntax; Sharh Jami, Mulla Abd al-Ghafur. During this time he also benefitted spiritually from Hadrat Hajji Pir Imdad Allah Muhajir Makki رحمت اللہ علیہ , who granted him his shoes and clothes before Mawlana Abd Allah رحمت اللہ علیہ left Makkah Sharif.
With the permission of leading Shayukh, Mawlana Abd Allah رحمت اللہ علیہ landed in Bombay and spent five months there. Finally from Bombay he arrived in Delhi, where in an area known as Tilyawarr, there was a mosque where a leading scholar of Hadith and principles of Hadith called Allama Abd al-Karim Panjabi رحمت اللہ علیہ distributed oceans of knowledge to students. With Allama Abd al-Karim Panjabi رحمت اللہ علیہ he studied Hadith and leading works on Logic and Philosophy such as Salm al-Ulum, Mulla Hasan, Hamd Allah, Mir Zahid, Sadra, Shamas Bazigha and so forth. He spent three years in Delhi and completed his studies and when he returned to his native village in Ladar, the local people including his relatives did not recognize him. However, when he went to the local mosque and gave azan in his distinct voice then people began to gather around him. It was then that the people realized that the person giving azan in such an emotional voice was none other than Mawlana Abd Allah رحمت اللہ علیہ ho had spent ten years studying away from home in Haramain Sharifain and Delhi and had now returned as a fully qualified scholar.This lengthy account suggests that Hadrat Sahib’s studies linked him with the leading Sufis and scholars of his time. Hazrat Sahib رحمت اللہ علیہgained religious knowledge and understanding of the Holy Qur’an from Mawlana Abd Allah and with further prolific study, he became so well versed in these sciences that the leading Fuqaha (jurists), Muhhadiths (Transmitters of Hadith) and Muftis (judges) were amazed at the depth of knowledge he possessed and would accept his verdicts without reservation.
Names of Some Awliya Allah that have met Hazrat sahib of Gulhar sharif – Hazrat Zinda Pir r/a and Sufi Abdullah Khan Sahib of Ghamkol sharif, Hazrat Sufi Aslam sahib r/a of Shadpur sharif, Hazrat Alaudeen Siddiqui sahib of Nerian Sharif, Pir Muhammad Karam Shah al-Azhari , Sayyidul Awliya Pir Rehmat Karim Sahib much more blessed Awliya Allah and Shuyukh in our time and before us.
May Allah SWT continue to shower his mercy on us by giving us the guidance of his chosen ones Ameen .
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