Allama Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi (1104-1174 AH) was one of the most prominent Islamic scholars in the history of Sindh (Pakistan).
(Arabic: العلامة المخدوم محمد هاشم بن عبدالغفور بن عبدالرحمان التتوي السندي الحارثي الحنفي)
(Sindhi: مخدوم محمد هاشم ٺٽوي)
(Urdu: مخدوم محمد ہاشم ٹھٹوی)
Born: 10 Rabi’ al-Awwal 1104 A.H. (1692 CE)
Died: Thursday 6 Rajab 1174 AH. at 70 years of age
Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi (1692- 1761) (Sindhi: مخدوم محمد هاشم ٺٺوي, Urdu: مخدوم محمد ہاشم ٹھٹھوی) was an islamic scholar, author, philanthropist, and a spiritual leader who was considered a saint by his followers. He was the first ever translator of the Quran in Sindhi language
He also ran the office of the Chief Justice and stayed the Governor of Sindh and connected areas of Punjab in the Kalhora era. Makhdoom was also a feudal lord and tribe chieftain. He was the leading Islamic theologian and the Imam of the Grand Mosque at Thatta. He engaged himself in missionary duties and was famous among Sufis. He wrote Madah Nama Sindh (a book about Islam in Sindhi society and culture), Dirham al-Surrat Fi Wada al-Yadayn Taht al-Surrah (a book based on the Hanafi theology), Al-Baqiyat as-Salihat (a biography of great Islamic figures) and other books. His religious dictums shaped Sindhi culture and Islamic tradition in Sindh. He was believed to be a leading expert authority on the Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. He belonged to the Qadri order of Sufism, and followed the Hanafi school of thought. He has a large following throughout the Muslim world specially in Sindh and Thatta district in specific.
Thattvi descends from Al-Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib of the Quraysh tribe, to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad also belonged:
- Muhammad Hashim
- Abdul Ghafur
- Abdul Latif
- Abdur Rahman
- Khairuddin Harsi
Early life and education
Makhdoom belonged to a very traditional, religious and educated family and received basic education from his father Makhdoom Abdul Ghafoor. His father taught him to memorise and recite the Quran. He further learned Persian language and Fiqh at home and travelled to Thatta the centre of education, poetry, spiritual grooming and culture of the time for receiving higher education. It was in the time of the Kalhora dynasty when Sindh was at its peak in reference to rich culture and economic progress. Scholars, poets, intellectuals were found in abundance and such people were very much obeyed, trusted and respected. Thatta had been entirely unique as in the year 1111 Hijri, it had 400 high schools and 1400 mosques and is considered a unique city even today. All this attracted Makhdoom Hashim to come to Thatta and attend Arabic classes from Makhdoom Saeed. Makhdoom Muhammad, by his immense intellect and sharp mind, finished the curriculum which was usually completed in six years, in just six months. This made Makhdoom earn a lot of popularity among the great scholars and common people who used to come and visit him from far away areas and places. So he became a source of attraction for many people and they began to see him as their spiritual master.
Makhdoom Muhammad went to Makhdoom Zia uddin Thattvi to learn the science of ahadith and associated matters. It took him nine years to learn Persian and Arabic.Meanwhile, his father Makhdoom Abdul Ghafoor died on 1113 Hijri in the blessed month of Dhul-hajj and was buried in his place at Sehwan.
Makhdoom visited Makkah and Madinah and learned exegesis, ahadith, religious fundamentals, tajwid and fiqh.
He wrote 400 books in Arabic, Sindhi and Persian including:
- Madah Nama Sindh (مدح نامه سنڌ): The book contains merits and values of Sindh and Sindhi society in the 18th century.
- Dirham al-Surrat Fi Wada al-Yadayn Taht al-Surrah. This is a short book that proves the Hanafi way of keeping hands in Qiyam during prayer is proved by Sahih Hadith.
- al-Baqiyat as-Salihat (الباقيات الصالحات): This book describes the biographies of prophet Muhammad’s wives and some other great Islamic figures.
His authored books are included in the syllabus of Al-Azhar University today as well. Some of his books have recently been translated into Sindhi by Allama Muhammad Idrees Dahiri and Ghulam Mustafa Qasmi, including Madah Nama Sindh, al-Baqiyat as-Salihat and Khamsat at-Tahirah.
On Friday, 12th OF Rajab 1135 Hijri, Makhdoom Hashim was at Madinah and presented greetings at the resting place of Muhammad and reportedly received the greatest gift in the form of reply of the greetings from Muhammad himself: “Waalaykum as-salam ya Muhammad Hashim”. There were two Muhammad Hashims who both felt Muhammad had replied to them alone. To end the confusion they agreed on trying again and this time Muhammad reportedly replied: “Waalaykum as-salam ya Muhammad Hashim Thattvi.”
A Persian phrase describes this event:
- “Zaban-e-khalq-e-khuda naqqara-e-khuda ast”
- Tongue of mankind is the tongue of God.
Mausoleum and shrine
Thousands of devotees and followers visit his mausoleum and shrine every day which is located in Makli, Thatta, near the historical Makli graveyard. Many followers are buried alongside his shrine. Few of the names of the notables resting there are as follows: Ubaidullah Sindhi and Hassam-ud-Din Rashidi.
Urs – Death Anniversary
Makhdoom Hashim’s urs is celebrated every year on the 6th of rajab at the shrine.
The day’s proceedings involve recitation of the Quran, hymns and praises of Allah and Muhammad and the Prophet, and religious discourses are given by local orators and scholars.
Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi was one of the greatest scholars in Sindh. He was a great jurist, a poet, an academician, a researcher, a Muhaddith and a Mufassir, and authored hundreds of books and articles many of whom have been lost. Many of his surviving books and articles are not published and manuscripts are available in historical and personal libraries.
He was born on 10 Rabi’ al-Awwal 1104 A.H. in Bathoro (بٺورو), a town in the Thatta district of Sindh, and died on 6 Rajab 1174 A.H. He is buried in the famous graveyard of Makli near Thatta.
He received his basic education from his father Makhdoom Abdul Ghafoor, and then learned from famous scholars of Sindh. In 1135 AH he want for Hajj and remained in Haramain for two years. There, he studied with some of the great scholars of the time. Some of his teachers include:
- Makhdoom Muhammad Saeed Thattvi (Thatta)
- Makhdoom Zia’uddin Thattvi (Thatta)
- Shaykh Abdul Qadir bin Abu Bakr Siddiqi Hanafi Makki, Mufti of Makkah al-Mukarramah (d. 1138 AH)
- Shaykh Eid bin Ali Misri al-Shafi’i al-Azhari (d. 1140 AH)
- Shaykh Abu Tahir Muhammad bin Ibrahim Madani (d. 1145 AH). He was also the teacher of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi.
He received his spiritual guidance in Tariqah Qadriyah from one of the great scholars and shaykh of Sindh, Sayyid Sa’dullah Qadri (سيد سعد الله قادري) of Surat (b. 1099 AH, d. 1138 AH.). He went to his Shaykh in 1136 A.H. (1723 CE) and within a year received khilafah and returned home to Thatta in Safar 1137 A.H. With Ba’yah with Sayyid Sa’dullah, Makhdoom was also highly devoted and received spiritual guidance from Shaykh Abul-Qasim Naqshbandi (d. 7 Sha’ban 1138 AH.), one of the most famous Naqshbandi saints of Sindh who is buried in Makli, Thatta. Shaykh Abul-Qasim was the khalifa of Shaykh Saifuddin Faruqi Sirhindi the grandson of Imam Rabbani Shaykh Ahmed Sirhindi.
Makhdoom Hashim collected thousands of valuable Islamic books from all around the world in his personal library. It was one of the largest libraries of the region. But unfortunately the library did not survive long after him. Many books were stolen or taken away by other people, and there wasn’t any person who could take care of the remaining books.
From his descendents, his grandson Makhdoom Muhammad Ibrahim Thattvi (1162-1225 AH) son of Makhdoom Abdul-Latif son of Makhdoom Hashim was one of the leading Sufi shaykhs in Sindh. He belonged to the Naqshbandi tradition and is one of the famous saints of Sindh. He was a great scholar as well and an author of many books. He travelled very much specially in the Arabian lands, and was a master of Arabic language.