Name and Lineage:
His name is ‘KHAWAJA SHAH MUHAMMAD SULEMAN’ and his titles are ‘Ghaus-e-Zaman, Peer-e-Pathan and Shahbaz-e-Chisht Ahle Bahisht’. His genealogy is following: “Hazrat Khawaja Muhammad Suleman Taunsvi son of Muhammad Zakariya son of Abdul Wahhab son of Umar Khanعلیھم الرّحمہ ” As family, he belonged to the Jafar tribe of Pathans that was the most prominent in the knowledge, worship, modesty and nobility. His respected father passed away when he was a child so his respected mother particularly arranged to his education and training because before his birth, she dreamt that the sun came down in her lap and hundreds people were congratulating to her.
Date of Birth:
He was born at Gargoji of ‘Koh-e-Suleman’ which is located in the western side from Taunsa, in 1184 AH/ 1770 AD.
Acquisition of Knowledge:
He was sent to Maulana Yousuf Jafarرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ to learn the Holy Quran at the age of four years and he memorized fifteen Paras (Chapters) of the Holy Quran from him. Thereafter, he completed the Holy Quran from Mian Hasan Ali at Baggi Masjid which demolished by the flood of Sanghar Rod Kohi in 1274 AH. He studied the primary books of Persian from the same teacher. To get further knowledge, he reached to Kot Mithan by crossing the rugged ways where he completed Islamic sciences in the Madrasa of Hazrat Maulana Qazi Muhammad Aqilرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ . He got the mystical education and training from a respected Scholar Hazrat Khawaja Noor Muhammad Maharviرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ . Along with perfect Sheikh, he was also a great Islamic Scholar at that time. He had the complete expertise in Fiqh, Hadith and the Holy Quran. His teaching (Dars) of Sahih Muslim, Awarif-al-Maarif, Futuhat-e-Makkiyyah and Fusus-ul-Hikam were very famous.
Allegiance and Caliphate (Khilafat):
Hazrat Maulana Fakhruddin Fakhr-e-Jahan Dehlviرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ gave an order to Hazrat Khawaja Noor Muhammad Maharvi رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ that “Find a special man who lives on the peaks of Koh-e-Suleman and then include him in Chishti order because Chishtia and Nizamia order will promote through him.” Therefore, Hazrat Khawaja Maharviرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ used to travel to those areas in search of that special man. At last, the required man found in the shape of Hazrat Khawaja Muhammad Suleman Taunsvi رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ. He said by looking at him that “we got our purpose now.” Thereafter, Hazrat Khawaja Noor Muhammad Maharviرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ never went in those areas. He took an oath of the allegiance to him at the shrine of Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhariرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ . then, he spent six years in training of Qibla Alamرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ . He was awarded the Khilafat at the age of 22 years. Sheikh directed him to stay in Taunsa. Afterwards, he kept servicing of Islam in that area till lifetime.
Character and Peculiarities:
He is counted in those perfect Auliya-e-Kiramعلیھم الرّحمہ who paid many services for the Islam and paid the leading role for the Muslim Ummah in problematic time. He was a great reformer and the true Nayeb-e-Rasool صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم. The effect of his preach and religious honor was also upon the despots of that time. He would strictly prevent the rulers from working against the Islamic laws. The fame of this anonymous and barren area of Panjab got the celebrity throughout the world by the virtue of his blessings. When his guidance style got famous gradually, people started coming to his auspicious court to get the privilege of becoming his Mureed. Nawab Bahawal Khan governor of Bahawalpur and Shah Shuja from Afghanistan also joined to his devotee circle. After staying in Taunsa, he did this first job there that he opened a Madrasa for spreading Islamic education. Then, this work got such success that the sounds of‘قال اللہ وقال الرسول عزوجل و صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم’ began to raise in the air and Taunsa became the center of Islamic sciences. Taunsa Sharif was a great university of Islamic sciences and arts in that era. Around two thousand students used to study in it and fifty teachers would perform the duty of religious education. Residence, food and dress arrangement for all the Scholars, students and servants was by Madrasa. Shah-e-Shahan Hazrat Khawaja Muhammad Suleman Taunsviرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ splendidly conveyed the message of Islam to the people. Not only the people of subcontinent, but also people of Afghanistan, Iran, Sri Lanka, Aden and Turkmenistan got his spiritual beneficence. Hazrat Khawaja Shams-ul-Arifeen Sialvi رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ said that “he was more popular in the sainthood and allegiance than Hazrat Khawaja Maharvi رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ.” Therefore, people of Balakh, Bukhara, Iran, Hirat, Hind, Sindh and Harmain Sharifain got the beneficence from him according to their competence. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who was his contemporary, said “his fame was from Qaaf to Qaaf (too far-flung). Delhi was also the center of Islamic Sciences in the degenerative time and people would come to him to acquire Islamic Sciences. (Asar-us-Sanadid referred to Tazkira Auliya-e-Pakistan, P. 331)
When the political decline falls into a nation, then starts declining its thoughts, deeds, habits and manners too. The bad impact of moral decline is more destructive than political decline because all the paths of renewal and revival get closed after it and address and advice gets ineffective. The political decline had started at the time of Shah Sahibرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ . The impact of moral decline was the result of political decline so he kept on promoting the Islamic and moral values, by which the blessings of Islam appeared everywhere. A great tourist came to him and said, “I have been to India and Khurasan but I did not see the religiousness anywhere, as I saw it in Bukhara and Taunsa.” It was that era when the domination of Sikhs was over Punjab and British authority was spreading rapidly. He made Muslims realize in clear words that the secret of their success is hidden in acting upon the Holy Quran and Sunnahs of the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم. He said clearly, “Since, Muslims have quitted to follow the Prophet’s Sunnahs (صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم), that’s why Almighty Allah made the disbelievers give dominating over them.” (Tazkira Akabir-e-Ahle Sunnat, P. 472)
Reformation of Sufis:
When the decline falls on a nation, the impacts of decline are found in all the departments. Sufis were suffering from various weaknesses of beliefs and actions in that era. They exceedingly believed in ‘Aurad-o-Wazaif’ (incantations) and they kept busy in it all the time. Ummat had fallen into immorality and rulers were busy in luxuries. These gentlemen were sitting in jungles and caves by holding Tasbeeh (rosary). What is the advantage of such worship? He wanted that “سالک را باید کہ غمِ دین خورد کہ مقصود داررین است” i.e. Sufis should create the grief of Deen that is the aim of the both worlds. (Naafi-al-Salikeen, P. 74)
Admonition to Scholars:
Whenever he saw the wrongdoing against Islam in any department, he immediately paid the attention towards it. He trembled by looking at the Scholars’ inactions. He said, “اصلاح العالِم اصلاح العالَم، فسادالعالِم فسادالعالَم” i.e. Reformation of a Scholar is the reformation of the world, and deterioration of a Scholar is the deterioration of the world. He further said, “Scholars neither go to Heaven alone nor go to Hell, rather a large number of people will be with them in both places.” He said, “There is no benefit of knowledge without process and process without belief of the Ahle Sunnat. Acquiring the human perfection is not possible without acting upon the Shariah as apparently and esoterically.” He spent the whole life in reformatting the Muslim nation. He prepared such hundreds people who were the bearers of greatness of Islam and in fact, they were the heralds of Muslim nation. Millions people got the beneficence through his guidance and many people became the leaders of the nation by getting his Khilafat.
He passed away on 7th Safar-ul-Muzaffar, 1267 AH/ 13 December, 1850 AD and his blessed Shrine is the resort of all in Taunsa Sharif, Dera Khan district (Panjab, Pakistan).