Martyrdom: He was poisoned in the prison of Harun al-Rashid at Baghdad in the year 183 A.H. He is buried in Kazimiyyah in Iraq.
The 7th Holy Imam Musa al-Kazim(a.s.) was the son of Imam Jafar as-Sadiq(a.s.), the Sixth Imam . The name of his mother was Hamidah , the daughter of a noble man hailing from the States of Barbary.
Imam Musa al-Kazim(a.s.) passed twenty years of his sacred life under the gracious patronage of his holy father . His inherent genius and gifted virtues combined with the enlightened guidance and education from Imam Jafar as-Sadiq(a.s.), showed in the manifestation of his future personality . He was fully versed with the Divine Knowledge even in his childhood. al-`Allamah al-Majlisi(a.r.) relates that once Abu Hanifah happened to call upon the holy abode of Imam Jafar as-Sadiq(a.s.) to ask him about some religious matters ( masa’il ) . The Imam(a.s.) was asleep and so he kept waiting outside till the Imam’s(a.s.) awakening . Meanwhile , Imam Musa al-Kazim(a.s.) , who was then five years old , came out of his house . Abu Hanifah , after offering him his best compliment , enquired: “O the son of the Holy Prophet ! what is your opinion about the deeds of a man ? Does he do them by himself or does God make him do them ?” “O Abu Hanifah” , the five years old Imam(a.s.) replied at once , in the typical tone of his ancestors , “the doings of a man are confined to three possibilities . First , that God alone does them while the man is quite helpless . Second , that both God and the man do equally share the commitment . Third , that man does them alone . Now , if the first assumption is true , it obviously proves the unjustness of God who punishes His creatures for sins which they have not committed . And if the second condition be acceptable , even then God becomes unjust if He punishes the man for the crimes in which He is equally a partner . But the undesirability of both these conditions is evident in the case of God . Thus , we are naturally left with the third alternative to the problem that men are absolutely responsible for their own doing .”
The Holy Imam Jafar as-Sadiq(a.s.) breathed his last on 25th Shawwal 148 AH , and with effect from the same date Imam Musa al-Kazim(a.s.) succeeded the holy office of Immamate as the Seventh Imam . The priod of his Imamate continued for thirty – five years . In the first decade of his Imamate , Imam Musa al-Kazim(a.s.) could afford a peaceful execution of the responsibilities of his sacred office and carried on the propagation of the teachings of the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf) . But soon after , he fell a victim to the ruling kings and a greater part of his life passed in prison.
Imam Musa al-Kazim(a.s.) lived under the most crucial times in the regimes of the despotic `Abbasid kings who were marked for their tyrannical and cruel administration . He witnessed the reings of al-Mansur ad-Dawaniqi , al-Mahdi and Harun ar-Rashid . Al-Mansur and Harun ar-Rashid were the despotic kings who put a multitude of innocent descendants of the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf) to the sword . Thousands of these martyrs were buried alive inside walls or put into horrible dark prisons during their lifetime . These depraved caliphs knew no pity or justice and they killed and tortured for the plessure they derived from human sufferings.The Holy Imam(a.s.) was saved from the tyranny of al-Mansur because the king , being occupied with his project of constructing the new city of Baghdad , could not get time to turn towards victimizing the Imam. By 157 AH the city of Baghded was built . This was soon followed by the death of its founder a year later . After al-Mansur , his son al-Mahdi ascended the throne . For a few years he remained indifferent towards the Imam(a.s.) . When in 164 AH he came to Medina and heard about the great reputation of the Imam , he could not resist his jealousy and the spark of his ancestral malice against the Ahl-al-bayt(a.s.) was rekindled . He somehow managed to take the Imam(a.s.) along with him to Baghdad and got him imprisoned there . But after a year he realized his mistake and released the Imam(a.s.) from jail . al-Mahdi was succeeded by al-Hadi who lived only for a yaer . Now , in 170 AH , the most cruel and tyrannical king Harun ar-Rashid appeared at the head of the `Abbasid Empire . It was during his reign that the Holy Imam(a.s.) passed the greater part of his life in a miserable prison till he was poisoned. Harun had the Imam(a.s.) arrested in the Prophet’s)pbuh&hf) mosque whilst Imam was praying. He was handcuffed and shackled and sent to Basra. Imam(a.s.) was put into prison under the custody of Isa bin Ja’fer. After a year Isa wrote to Harun saying he could no longer imprison Imam(a.s.) as he could find only piety and righteousness in him.
Harun had the Imam(a.s.) moved to Baghdad under the custody of Fadhl bin Rabi who too became a follower of Imam(a.s.). The prisons were so small that there was no room to stand and the food was a cup of water and two pieces of dry bread a day. Imam(a.s.) remained patient. Harun finally moved Imam in the care of Sindi bin Shahak (a very cruel man). Imam remained in prison for the last 19 years of his life.
The 19 years of imprisonment gave the Shia population a little relief as the rulers concentrated on Imam. It enabled the Shias to disperse from Arabia to Iran, India etc. thus spreading Islam and it was one of the factors towards the popularity of the 8th Imam.
Moral and Ethical Excellence
As regards his morality and ethical excellence , Ibn Hajar al-Haytami remarks : “The patience and forbearance of Imam Musa al-Kazim(a.s.) was such .hat he was given the title of al-Kazim ( one who swallows down his anger ) . He was the embodiment of virtue and generosity . He devoted his nights to the prayers of God and his days to fasting . He always forgave those who did wrong to him , His kind and generous attitude towards the people was such that he used to patronize and help the poor and destitutes of Medina and provide for them cash , food , clothes and other necessitities of sustenance secretly . It continued to be a riddle for the receivers of gifts throughout the Imam’s(a.s.) lifetime as to who their benefactor was , but the secret was not revealed until after his death.
Time and circumstances did not premit Imam Musa al-Kazim(a.s.) to establish institutions to impart religious knowledge to his followers as his father , Imam Jafar as-Sadiq(a.s.) and his grandfather , Imam Muhammad al-Baqir(a.s.) had done . He was never allowed to address a congregation . He carried on his mission of preaching and guiding people quietly.
In 179 AH , Harun ar-Rashid visited Medina . The fire of malice and jealousy against the Ahl-al-bayt(a.s.) was kindled in his heart when he saw the great influence and popularity which the Holy Imam(a.s.) enjoyed amongst the people there . He got the Imam(a.s.) arrested while he was busy in prayer at the tomb of the Holy Prophet(pbuh&hf) and kept him in prison in Baghded for a period of about four years . On the 25th Rajab 183 AH , he got the Imam(a.s.) martyred by poison . Even his corpse was not spared humiliation and was taken out of the prison and left on the Bridge of Baghdad . When Harun Rashid’s brother Sulayman heard of this he was furious and arranged for his burial in a Quraysh cemetery outside Baghdad (the 8th Imam gave ghusl and kafan). A town grew around the tomb of Imam called Kadhmain (meaning the two Kadhims) since the 9th Imam is also buried there.
**** Aqwaal : ‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾‾ Aap farmaate hain ki : (1) Dunya us saanp ki tarah hai jo dikhne me khubsurat lagta hai, Magar jitna qareeb jaaoge utna apne zeher se tumhe nuqsaan pahunchaega.
(2) Dunya ki mohabbat samundar ke paani ki tarah hai. Pyaasa insaan kitna bhi use piye pyaas aur badhti jaayegi aur yaha tak ki aakhir me wo mar jaayega.
(3) Halaal rizq haasil karne ke liye mehnat karne waala har insaan raahe khuda me jihaad karne waale jaisa hai.
(4) Kamzor ko madad karna behtareen sadqa hai.
**** Karaamat : (1) Ek din ek Shakhs Aap ki khidmat me hazir hua aur Parindo jaisi boli me Aap se baate karne laga. Aap bhi usi zabaan me usko jawaab dete rahe. Jab wo chala gaya to haazireen ne arz kiya ke “Huzoor! Hum ne aisa Kalaam kabhi nahi suna.” Aap ne farmaaya ke “Ye Jinno ke ek giroh ki zabaan hai aur beshak ALLĀH ta’ala Imaame Waqt ko tamaam makhlooqaat ki zabaan sikha deta hai aur yeh ta’ajjub ki baat nahi.”
(2) Jab Aap Khalifa Hāroon Rasheed ki qaid me the to Hazrat Imaame aazam Ab Haneefa ke Saahibain Hazrat Imaam Abu Yousuf aur Hazrat Imaam Mohammad rahmatullāhi alaihi Jail khaane me Aap se kuchh sawaalaat karn ke liye milne aaye. Lekin un Hazraat ne abhi koi sawaal kare us se pehle Jail khaane ka ek sipaahi aaya aur Imaam se kehne laga ke “Meri Duty khatm ho gai hai aur main jaa raha hu, kal aaunga. Agar Aap ko koi kaam ho to bataayen, Main use kar ke aaunga.” Aapne irshaad farmaaya “Mera koi kaam nahi.” Jab wo chala gaya to Aap ne don Hazraat se farmaaya ke “Mujhe us shakhs par ta’ajjub hota hai ke ye mujh se kehta hai ke koi haajat ho to kal ke din us ko anjaam de kar aau, Haalaanki wo aaj raat ko hi mar jaayega.” Ye sunkar dono Saahibaan sawaal karne ke bajaay waha se waapas aa gaye aur aapas me kehne lage ke “Hamara iraada to tha ke hum Farz o Sunnat ke baare sawaalaat karenge magar yeh to hamare saath Ilm e Ghaib ki baaten karne lage. Wallāh! Hum ek shakhs ko us sipaahi ke saath bhejenge taaki wo us ke saath raat basar kare aur dekhe ke kya hota hai.” Chunaanche un dono Hazraat ne ek shakhs ko us Sipaahi ke pichhe rawaana kiya. Wo shakhs us sipaahi ke darwaaze par baith kar intazaar karta raha. Jab kuchh raat guzri to sipaahi ke makaan se rone ki chillaane ki aawaaz aai. Us shakhs ne ghar waalo se puchha to use bataaya gaya ke us sipaahi ka intiqaal ho gaya hai. Us shakhs ne aa kar jab in dono Hazraat ko khabar di to inhe bhi bahot ta’ajjub hua.
(3) Ek martaba Hasan bin Abdullāh ne Imaam ko koi karaamat dikhaane ke liye arz ki. Aap ne farmaaya ke “Jaao, Qareeb me jo ped dkh raha hai us ke paas kaakar kaho ke tumhe Imaam ne bulaaya hai.” Hasan bin Abdullāh ne jab ped ke paas jaakar Aap ka farmaan bataaya to woh ped foran apni jado samet Aap ki khidmat me haazir hua. Phir Aap ne use apni jagah waapas jaane ke liye farmaaya to woh waapas jaakar jaisa tha waisa ho gaya. **** Aap Mustajaab-ud-Daawaat the. Log Aap ke paas aakar apni Haajat bayaan karke dua ke liye arz karte. Aap dua karte to ALLĀH ke fazl se un ki haajat puri ho jaati. Is liye ‘Baab-ul-Hawaa’ij (Door of fulfilment of needs)’ ke laqab se mash’hoor hain.
Aap bahot sakhi the. Ghareebo aur mohtaajo ko kaṡrat se khufiya imdaad karte the.
**** Khalifa Mansoor ke zamaane me Aap ke waalid ki shahaadat ke baad Aap 21 saal ki umr me Imaam bane.
Mansoor ne Madeena ke governor Sulaimān ko Imaam Ja’afar al-Saadiq ke tamaam mutawali (trustee) ko qatl karne ka hukm diya. Us ne bataaya ke ‘Imaam ke 5 mutawali me Mansoor, Sulaimān, Abdullāh, Umme Hameeda aur Imaam Moosā saamil hain.’ Ye sunkar Mansoor khaamosh ho gaya.
**** Kuchh waqt baad Mansoor ne Aap ko bhi qaid karke rakha. Us ke baad Mahdi aur Moosā ne bhi Aap ko qaid karke rakha. 179 Hijri (795 A.D.) me Moosā ke bhaai Hāroon al-Rasheed ne Aap ko qaid kar liya. 4 baras baad us ke hukm se Sindi ibn Shahiq ne khajoor me zeher milakar shaheed Imaam ko kar diya.
**** Aap ka wisaal 25 Rajab 183 Hijri (1 September 799 A.D.) ko hua.
Aap ka mazaar Kazimain (Iraq) me hai.
****** ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me Aur Hazrat Imaam Sayyed Moosā al-Kaazim rahmatullāhi alaihi aur Ahle bait aur Auliya Allāh ke waseele se Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae. Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae. Aameen.