|Name: Al Hasan bin Ali (a.s.)
Mother: Ummul Walad – Susan.
Kunniyat (Patronymic): Abu Muhammad.
Laqab (Title): Al Askari.
Birth: He was born at Samarrah in the year 232 A.H.
Martyrdom: He was poisoned in 260 A.H. at Samarrah and is buried there.
His name is al-Hasan, Abu Muhammad. Being a resident of “Asgar a suburb of Samarra”, he is titled al-askari. His father was Imam “Ali An-Naqi (A.S.) and his mother was Salil Khatun, an ideal woman in piety, worship, chastity and generosity. He was born in Medina on the tenth of Rabi” al-Akhir, 232 A.H. (December 4, 846 AD).
Upbringing and Instruction
He lived under the care of his respected father upto the age of 11. When his father had to leave for Samarra” he was to accompany him and thus share the hardships of the journey with the family. At Samarra”, he passed his time with his father either in imprisonment or in partial freedom. He had, however, the chance to benefit from his father”s teaching and instruction.
His father died in 254. A.H. (868 AD) when he was twenty-two. Four months before his death, the father declared his son to be his successor and executor of his will, asking his followers to bear witness to the fact. Thus the responsibilities of Imamate were vested upon him which he fulfilled even in the face of great difficulties and hostile environment.
In the early days of his lmamate, Al-Mu”tassam Al-“Abbasi was the caliph. When the latter was deposed, he was succeeded by al-Muhtadi. After his brief reign of only eleven months and one week, al-Mu”tamad came to the throne. During their regimes, Imam Hasan al-askari (A.S.) did not enjoy peace at all. Although the Abbaside dynasty was involved in constant complications and disorders, each and every king thought it necessary to keep the Imam (A.S.) imprisoned.
One of the Holy Prophet”s traditions ran that the Prophet (S.A.W) would be succeeded by twelve soccessors, the last of whom would be the Mahdi, Qa”im “Al-Muhammad (A.S.). The “Abbasides knew well that the true successors of the Prophet (S.A.W) were these very Imams. AI-Hasan (A.S.) being the eleventh, his son would surely be the 12th or the last. They, tried to put an end to his life in such a way, that it would ensure there would be nobody to succeed him. As the simple confinement inflicted on Imam “Ali an-Naqi (A.S.) was considered inadequate for Imam Hasan al-“askari (A.S.), so he was imprisoned, away from his family. No doubt the revolutionary intervals between two regimes gave him brief periods of freedom. Yet as soon as the new king came to the throne, he followed his predecessor”s policy and imprisoned the Imam again. The Imam”s brief life therefore was mostly spent inside dungeon cells.
Appointement of Deputies
Under all circumstances, the Imams carried out their duties of guiding the people. Imam Hasan Al-“askari was subjected to numerous restrictions,and those who sought to learn the teachings of AhI al-Bayt (A.S.) and their Shi”ah point of view could not reach him. In order to solve this problem, the Imam appointed certain confidants as his deputies in view of their knowledge of jurisprudence. These persons satisfied the curiosity of inquirers as much as they could. But if they could not solve certain theological problems, they would keep them pending the acquisition of their solutions from the Imam (A.S.) whenever they got the opportunity to see him. Of course the visit to the Imam (A.S.) by a few individuals could be allowed by the government but certainly not by groups who wished to see the Imam (A.S.) on a regular basis.
The Khums (1/5 of total savings), which was being paid to the Imams (A.S.) by the believers who cherished these Imams and regarded them as representatives of the Divine Law was spent by these sacred saints on religious matters, and to sustain the Prophet”s descendants. This Khums was secretly collected by these deputies, who spent it according to the directives of the Imam. They accordingly were in constant danger of being identified as such by the governments’ secret intelligence service. In order to divert this danger, Uthman ibn Sa”id and his son Abu Ja”far Muhammad, two prominent deputies of the Imam (A.S.) in the capital Baghdad, ran a big shop trading in oils. This provided them with free contact with the concerned people. It was thus that even under the very thumb of the tyrant regime that those devotees managed to run the system of the Divine law unsuspected.
Character and Virtues
Imam Hasan Al-“askari (A.S.) was one of that illustrious series of the immaculate infallible each member of whom displayed the moral excellence of human perfection. He was peerless in knowledge, forbearance, forgiveness, generosity, sacrifice and piety. Whenever Al-Mu”tamad asked anybody about his captive Imam Hasan al-“askari (A.S.), he was told that the Imam fasted during the day and worshipped during the night, and that his tongue uttered no word but remembrance of his creator. During the brief periods of freedom and stay at home, people approached him hoping to avail from his benevolence, and they went back well rewarded. Once when the “Abbaside caliph asked Ahmed ibn “Abd Allah ibn khaqan, his Minister for Charities (awqaf), about the descendants of Imam “Ali (A.S.), he reported: “I do not know anybody among them who is more distinguished than Hasan al-“askari. None can surpass him in dignity, knowledge, piety and abstinence, nor can anybody match him in the point of nobleness majestic grandeur, modesty and honesty”.
As Center of Learning
Imam Hasan al-“askari (A.S.) had a brief span of life, only twenty-eight years, but even in this short period, which was furled by a chain of troubles and tribulations, several high ranking scholars benefited from his ocean of knowledge. He also stemmed the flood of atheism and disbelief, which ensued, from the philosophers of that age, winning conspicuous success over them. One of those was Ishaq al-Kindi. He was writing a book on what he called “self-contradictions” in the Holy Qur”an. When the news reached the Imam (A.S.), he waited for an opportunity to refute and rebut him. By chance, some of Ishaq”s students came to him. The Imam asked them: “Is there anyone among you who can stop Ishaq from wasting his time in this useless effort fighting the Holy Qur”an?” The students said: “Sir, we are his students: how can we object to his teaching?” The Imam urged that they could at least convey to their teacher what he had to tell them. They replied that they would be ready to cooperate as much as they could in that respect.
The Imam (A.S.) then recited a few verses from the Holy Qur”an, which the philosopher thought as contradictory of one another. He then explained to them thus: “Your teacher thinks that some of the words in these verses have only one meaning. But according to the Arabic language, these words have other meanings too which, when taken into consideration, indicate no contradiction in he overall meaning. Thus, your teacher is not justified for basing his objections and claim of contradictions on the premises of the “wrong meaning” he himself selects for such verses”. He then put up some examples of such words before them so clearly that the students conceived the whole discussion and the precedents of more than one meaning.
When these students visited Ishaq al-Kindi and after routine talk, reproduced the disputed points, he was surprised. He was a fair-minded scholar and he listened to his students” explanations. Then he said: “What you have argued is beyond your capacity: tell me truly who has taught you these points?” The students said that it was their own reflection, but when he insisted that they could never have conceived those points, they admitted that, it was explained to them by Abu Muhammad Imam Hasan al-askari (A.S.). The instructor said: “Yes: this level of knowledge is the heritage of that House and only that House”. Then he asked the students to set fire to all such works of his.
Imam Hasan al-askari (A.S.) was a reliable authority for traditionalists who had recorded several traditions in their collections on his authority. One tradition about drinking runs thus: “The wine drinking is like an idolater”. It has been recorded by Ibn al-Jawzi in his book “Tahrim al-Khamr” (prohibition of wine drinking) with continuous chain of references tracing its narrators. Abu Na”im Fadl ibn Waki states that the tradition is true as it has been narrated by his companions such as Ibn “Abbas, Abu Hyrayra, Anas, AbdAllah ibn Awf al-Aslami and others.
Unfortunately, these storehouses of knowledge are not available.
Imam Al-Hasan al-“askari, peace be on him, said:
Generosity has a limit, when crossed becomes extravagance; caution has a limit when crossed becomes cowardice; thriftiness has a limit, when crossed becomes miserliness; courage has a limit, when crossed becomes fool-hardiness. Let this moral lesson suffice: refrain from doing anything which you would disapprove of if done by someone else.
A Part of Imam Hasan Al-askari’s Commandments to His Shia
Let piety be your provision, patience be your garment, and buy hardship in the path of Allah. Be true in your speech, trustworthy in performing your deeds, prolong your sajdah (prostration), deal with others with best behavior, and treat your neighbor amicably. Perform your prayers even with those whom you think to be your opposition; attend their funeral ceremonies, visit their sick, and give them their rights. Verily I tell you that whosoever is honest and has good behavior in the eyes of others, he is the pious Shia whom I will be proud of. Therefore, fear Allah, be as adornment on behalf of us and be not as shame that defames our name. This is the only way by which others shall be attracted toward us (the Ahlul Bayt of the Holy Prophet s.w.)
Hazrat Imaam Sayyed Hasan al-Askari rahmatullāhi alaihi :
Aap ki wilaadat 10 Rabi uṡ Ṡaani 232 Hijri (6 December 846 A.D.) ko Madeena me hui.
Aap ke waalid ka naam Hazrat Imaam Sayyed Ali al-Haadi an-Naqi bin Imaam Sayyed Muhammad at-Taqi al-Jawwaad rahmatullāhi alaihi aur waalida ka naam Saleel hai.
Aap ka nikaah Nargis khaatoon binte Yushu se hua.
Aap ke saahabzaade Sayyed Ali Akbar hain.
Aap Aa’imma e ahle bait ke 11we Imaam hain.
Aap ko Ghauṡiyat e kubra ka martaba mila hai aur aap ke baad ye martaba Ghauṡ e aazam Hazrat Shaikh Abdul Qaadir Jeelaani radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anhu ko mila aur un ke baad ye Imaam Muhammad al-Mahdi radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anhu ko ye milega, tab tak Ghauṡ e aazam ki Ghausiyat e kubra ka zamaana rahega.
Ek martaba ek shakhs Imaam ki baargaah me apni ghurbat ka haal arz kiya. Us waqt Aap ke haath me ek koda tha. Aap ne us se zameen ko khoda to 500 dirham ka sona nikal aaya. Wo sab ka sab sona Aap ne us shakhs ko inaayat farma diya.
Ek shakhs ne ek mas’ala ma’aloom karne ke liye Aap ke paas ek tehrir bheji magar us me chauthe roz ke bukhaar ke ilaaj ke muta’alliq likhna bhul gaya.
Aap ne jawaab me tehreer farmaaya ke ‘Tumhare mas’ale ka jawaab ye hai aur tumhara ye bhi khayaal tha ke chauther ke bukhaar ke muta’alliq bhi daryaaft karoge lekin tum use likhna bhul gaye to tum ye Aayate kareema – Ya naaru kun badranw wa salama ek kaagaz par likh kar gale me daal do Shifayaab ho jaaoge.’
Us ne aisa hi kiya to use shifa ho gai.
Ek shakhs qaid me tha. Us ne apne waaalid ko ek kaagaz par likha aur Imaam ki khidmat me bhej diya. Aap ne irshad farmaaya ke ‘Ghabraao nahi, Aaj zohar ki namaaz tum apne ghar par adaa karoge.’ Usi din us shakhs ko qaid se rihaai mil gai aur us ne zohar ki namaaz apne ghar par adaa ki.
Phir Aap ka ek qaasid aaya aur use 100 deenaar diya aur Aap ka ek Khat bhi diya jis me likha tha ‘Jab bhi tumhe paiso ki zaroorat pesh aaye to baghair jhijhak mujh se talab kar liya karna aur tum jis ki khwaahish karoge wo tum ko haasil ho jaayegi.’
Khalifa Mustaeen ke paas ek khachchar tha jo bahot hi sarkash tha us par koi sawaar nahi ho sakta tha. Ek Darbaari ne Imaam Hasan Askari ka mazaaq udaane ke liye Khalifa Mustaeen se kaha ke’ Imaam Hasan Askari ko bulakar is sharir khachchar ko unhe sawaari ke liye de do.’
Khalifa ne Aap ko bulwaaya. Aap tashreef laaye aur khachchar ke paas khade ho kar us ki peeth par haath phera to use pasina aa gaya. Phir Khalifa ke arz karne par Aap ne us khachchar ko lagaam daali aur zeen kas diya. Phir khachchar par sawaar ho kar use sahen me chaaro taraf daudaaya lekin khachchar ne kisi qism ki koi sarkashi na ki. Khalifa ne us khachchar ko Aap ko nazr kar diya.
Abbaasi khalifa al-Mutawakkil bin al-Mu’tasim saadaat se bahot bughz rakhta tha. 232 Hijri me us ne Imaam Ali al-Haadi ko ne Madeena se Samarra bulaakar aap ke pariwaar ke saath nazar qaid kar liya tha.
247 Hijri (861 A.D.) me al-Mutawakkil ko us ke bete al-Muntasir ne Turk hukoomat ke kuchh shakhs ke saath milkar qatl kar diya.
Is ke baad al-muntasir ke zamaane me kuchh waqt ke liye Aap ko riha kiya.
Magar us ke inteqaal ke baad al-Mustaeen ne phir se Imaam ko nazar qaid kar liya.
al-Mu’tazz ke zamaane me 254 Hijri (868 A.D.) me Imaam Ali al-Haadi ko zeher dekar shaheed kar diya gaya.
Aap ke waalid Imaam Sayyed Ali al-Haadi an-Naqi ki shahaadat ke baad Aap Imaam bane.
Magar al-Mu’tazz, al-Muhtadi aur al-Mu’tamid ke zamaane me Aap ko nazar qaid rakha gaya.
al-Mu’tamid ke zamaane me Aap ko zeher dekar shaheed kiya gaya.
Aap ka wisaal 8 Rabi ul Awwal 260 Hijri (4 January 874 A.D.) ko 28 saal ki umr me hua.
Aap ka mazaar Samarra (Iraq) me hai.
ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Hazrat Imaam Sayyed Hasan al-Askari rahmatullāhi alaihi aur Ahle bait waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.