Makhdoom Sharfuddin Ahmed bin Yahya Maneri popularly known as Makhdoom-ul-Mulk Bihari and Makhdoom-e-Jahan is one of the most prominent Sufi saints of Bihar & India.
Hazrat Makhdoom Sharf-ud-deen Ahmad bin Yahyā Maneri rahmatullāhi alaihi :
Makhdoom-ul-Mulk, Makhdoom-e-Jahaan, Sultan-ul-Muhaqqeen.
Aap ki wilaadat 29 Sha’abaan 661 Hijri (July 1263 A.D.) ko Maner (Patna, Bihar) me hui.
Aap ke waalid ka naam Hazrat Makhdoom Kamaal-ud-deen Yahyā Maneri bin Makhdoom Israeel rahmatullāhi alaihi aur waalida ka naam Bi9bi Raziya binte Makhdoom Sayyed Shahaab-ud-deen Peer Jagjot Balkhi hai.
Aap ke pardaada Maulana Muhammad Taaj-ud-deen (Jerusalem ke qareeb) Quds al-Khalil se Hind me aaye the aur Maner me muqeem hue the.
Shir-khwaari (doodh pine) ke zamaane me ek martaba Aap ki waalida aap ko ghar me chhod kar pados ke ek makaan me gai. Jab waapas aai to dekha ke ek Buzurg jhule ke paas baith kar jhule ko hilaa rahe hain. Jab un ki nazar aap ki waalida par padi to gaa’ib ho gaye.
Aap ki waalida ne tamaam haal apne shohar se kaha to unho ne farmaaya ke ‘Wo Buzurg Hazrat Khizr alaihis salaam the aur is bache ki hifaazat ke liye aaye the. Ye bacha apne zamaane ka wali e kaamil aur makhdoom hoga.’
Bachpan se hi Aap ko husool e ilm me dilchaspi thi.
12 saal me umr me Narayanganj ke qareeb Sonargaon jaakar Hazrat Ashraf-ud-deen Abu Towama Bukhari se Arabi, Faarsi, Falsafa, Ilme Istedalaal ki ta’aleem haasil ki. Aap 24 saal tak Hazrat ki khidmat me rahe.
Is ke baad Aap Delhi tashreef le gaye. Waha Aap ne Hazrat Khwaja Nizaam-ud-deen Auliya rahmatullāhi alaihi aur deegar asfiya se faiz haasil kiya.
Aakhirkaar Aap apne bade bhai Makhdoom Jaleel-ud-deen Maneri rahmatullāhi alaihi ke saath Mehrauli me Hazrat Shaikh Najeeb-ud-deen Firdausi rahmatullāhi alaihi ki baargaah me aaye aur Hazrat ke mureed hue.
Phir Aap Maner ke qareeb Bihiya ke jangal me aur phir Rajgir me mujaahida karte rahe.
30 saal tak mujaahida karne ke baad Aap Bihar Sharif me sukoonat pazeer hue.
Sultaan Muhammad bin Tughlaq ne Aap ki khaanqaah ki taameer ki. Aur Aap logo ko ta’aleem aur faiz ata karte rahe.
Raajgir me qayaam ke dauraan ek Jogi Aap ke paas aaya aur Aap se puchha ke ‘Islaam me Wali e Kaamil ki pehchaan kya hi?’ Aap ne us Jogi se farmaaya ke ‘Islaam me Wali e Kaamil ki pehchaan ye hai ke wo apni zabaan se jo keh de wo ho jaata hai. Maṡlan agar wo is pahaad se kahe ke : Aye pahaad, tu sona ban jaa to wo sona ho jaaye.’
Abhi Aap ki zabaane mubarak se ye baat nikli hi thi ke wo pahaad sone ka ho gaya. Aap ne pahaad se mukhaatib hokar farmaaya ke ‘Aye pahaad! Main to miṡaal de raha tha. Apni asli haalat par laut aa.’
Aap ki yeh Karaamat dekhkar us Jogi aur us ke kai saathi ne Mazhab e Islaam qubool kar liya aur Aap ke mureed ho gaye.
Aap ki likhi hui mash’hoor kitaaben :
Aap ke Aqwaal aur ta’aleemaat ko 3 kitaabo me jama kiya gaya hai :
(1) Maktubat-e-Sadi (Qaazi Shams-ud-deen ko likhe hue 100 khutoot ka majmua, 747 Hijri)
(2) Maktubat-e-Bist-o-hasht (Maulana Muzaffar Shams Balkhi ko likhe hue 28 khutoot ka majmua)
(3) Fawaa’id-e-Rukni (Shaikh Rukn-ud-deen ko ta’aleem wa tadrees ka majmua).
Aap ka nikaah Bibi Badaam se hua.
Aap ke saahabzaade Zaki-ud-deen hain.
Aap Hazrat Shaikh Najeeb-ud-deen Firdausi rahmatullāhi alaihi ke mureed aur khalifa hain.
Aur ‘(Suharwardi Kubrawiya) Firdausi’ silsila ke Shaikh hain.
Aap ke khulfa :
(1) Qaazi Shams-ud-deen rahmatullāhi alaihi,
(2) Maulana Muzaffar Shams Balkhi rahmatullāhi alaihi,
(3) Shaikh Rukn-ud-deen rahmatullāhi alaihi,
(4) Shaikh Zain-ul-Badr Arabi rahmatullāhi alaihi.
Aap ka wisaal 6 Shawwaal 782 Hijri (January 1381 A.D.) ko Jumeraat ke roz hua.
Aap ka mazaar Badi Dargaah, Bihar Sharif (Bihar) me hai.
ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Hazrat Makhdoom Sharf-ud-deen Ahmad bin Yahyā Maneri rahmatullāhi alaihi aur tamaam Auliya Allāh ke waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.
Sheikh Sharfuddin Ahmed, born on July 1263 A.D. (Sha’aban 661 A.H.) at Maner, a village near Patna in Bihar, was the son of Makhdoom Kamaluddin Yahya Maneri bin Israel bin Taj Faqeeh from Al-Khaleel (Palestine). His father Makhdoom Yahya Maneriwas also a great Sufi saint of Maner in Patna district.
His maternal grandfather Shahabuddin Jagjot Balkhi was also a revered Sufi, whose tomb is located at Kachchi Dargah near Fatuha in Patna district.
At the age of 12, He left Maner to gain traditional knowledge of Arabic, Persian, logic, philosophy and religion under Ashrafuddin Abu Towama Bukhari (a famous scholar) in Sonargaon near Narainganj (now in Dhaka, Bangladesh) where he spent 24 years in his company.
At first he refused to marry, but when being ill, he was advised by the physician to take to marriage as the remedy for his disease. He married Bibi Badaam. He left home after the birth of a son, named Zakiuddin in 1289 A.D. who lived and died in Bengal.
After completing his education he left for Delhi where he met with Hazrat Nizamuddin and a number of other Sufis. His elder brother Makhdoom Jaleeluddin Maneri (Buried at Badi Dargah in Maner Sharif), who accompanied him there, finally introduced him to his own peer (spiritual master) Sheikh Najeebuddin Firdausi and he became a disciple of Sheikh Najeebuddin Firdausi of Mehrauli and got the title of Firdausi.
To shun material comforts, Sheikh Sharfuddin Ahmed bin Yahya Maneri went into the forest of Bihiya (about 15 miles west of Maner). He later went to Rajgir (about 75 miles east of Maner) where he chose to do ascetic exercises in the hills. A hot spring near to a place where he often prayed in Rajgir, is named Makhdoom Kund, to perpetuate his memory.
At least 30 years in the forests, Sheikh Sharfuddin Ahmed bin Yahya Maneri finally settled at Bihar Sharif. Later Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq built a Khanqah for him where he taught and trained disciples in Sufism (Tasawwuf). He devoted his entire life to teaching and writing.
The collection of his letters (Maktoobat) and sermons (Malfoozat) had received wide acclaim. His maktoobat is regarded as a ‘working manual’ amongst the highest in Sufi circles.
- Maktubat-i-Sadi, a ‘Series of a Hundred Letters’ (or rather essays on definite subjects) addressed to his disciple Qazi Shamsuddîn in 747 Hijra.
- Maktubat-i-Bist-o-hasht, a ‘Series of 28 Letters’, being replies to the correspondence of his senior disciple, Muzaffar, the prince of Balkh.
- Fawaed-i-Ruknî, a number of brief Notes prepared for the use of his disciple Rukn-ud-dîn.
- Qazi Shamsuddin
- Maulana Muzaffar Balkhi
- Sheikh Rukn-ud-din
- Sheikh Zain-ul-Badr Arabi
He died on Thursday, January 1381 A.D. (6 Shawwal, 782 Hijri). The funeral prayer was said according to his will. His will decreed that his funeral prayer be lead by a sufi from Semnan, a princely state in Iran, who was on his way to Pandua in Malda district of West Bengal to pledge spiritual allegiance on the hands of the renowned sufi Alaul Haq Pandavi and enter into the Chishti spiritual order. Accordingly, no sooner that his funeral was prepared Syed Ashraf Jahangir Semnani reached Maner Sharif and lead the funeral prayers
His Tomb lies at Badi Dargah (Bihar Sharif Nalanda), in a mosque to the east of a large tank, with masonry walls and ghats, and pillared porticos. The tomb is situated in an enclosure half filled with graves and ancient tress, on the north and west of which are three domed mosque and some quaint little cloisters. His tomb at Bihar Sharif is still resorted to as a place of sanctity by a large number of devout Muslims and a five day Urs is celebrated every year from 5th Shawwal with traditional zeal at Bihar Sharif.
- Letters From a Sufi Teacher by Sharf al-Din Maneri
- Article On Shaykh Sharfuddin Maneri By Paul Jackson