Hadhrat Shaykh Abū-Alī Fadl ibn Muhammad al-Fārmadī at-Tūsī qaddasa-Allāhu sirrahū (may Allāh sanctify his secret) was a great master of Sufism in the fourth century AH. He received spiritual secrets by the Uwaisi method from Shaykh Abul-Hasan Kharaqānī quddisa sirruhū.
He was son-in-law of Shaykh Abul-Qāsim Gurgānīquddisa sirruhū (d. 450 AH) and his chief spiritual successor. Shaykh Gurgānī received spiritual secrets from Shaykh Usmān Maghribī, who received from Shaykh Abū-Alī Kātib, who received from Shaykh Abū-Alī Rūdbārī, who received from Imām Junaid al-Baghdādī, and this chain goes to Sayyidinā Imām Alī, radiy-Allāhu anhum ajma’īn.
He was born in 402 AH. His real name was Fadl ibn Muhammad.
He said that in my young age, I used to study in Nishapur (modern-day Iran), where I heard one day that Shaykh Abū-Sa’īd Abul-Khair quddisa sirruhū (d. 440 AH) has come from Mahna and is speaking in a gathering. I went to visit him, and when I looked at his blessed face, I fell in love with him and the love of Sufis became firm in my heart. One day I was sitting in my room in the madrasah that suddenly I had a desire to see the Shaykh, though it was not a regular time for the shaykh to come out. I tried to be patient but failed. So I went out and reached the square, and I saw that the shaykh with a large number of followers. I also followed the shaykh who entered a place and engaged in Simā’ (spiritual singing). I sat at a place where the shaykh could not see me. During the Simā’, the shaykh was overwhelmed by ecstasy and tore up his shirt. After the Simā’, the blessed shirt of the shaykh was ripped into pieces which the shaykh distributed in the attendees. The shaykh took out the sleeve and called: O Abū-Alī Tūsī! Where are you? I thought the shaykh cannot see me neither does he know me, so there must be someone among his disciples of this name. Shaykh called again but I kept quite. When I called for the third time, the people said to me that the shaykh is calling you. I went to the shaykh and he gave me that sleeve of his blessed shirt, and told me to keep it safe. Thereafter, I received numerous benefits, lights and spiritual states in the service of the shaykh.
It is said that there have been forty awliyā (saints) who were disciples of Shaykh Abū-Sa’īd Abul-Khair. Among them are Shaykh al-Islām Ahmad Jām and Shaykh Abū-Alī Fārmadī. One master of the Naqshbandī order has said that Shaykh Abū-Alī had been granted knowledge of inner thoughts but was not allowed to reveal it, while Shaykh Ahmad Jām was also given knowledge of thoughts and was ordered to reveal it.
When Shaykh Abū-Sa’īd Abul-Khair left Nīshāpur, Shaykh Fārmadī came to the service of Imām Abul-Qāsim Qushairī quddisa sirruhu (d. 465 AH) who was a great Imām of Sufism and is author of one of the earliest books of Sufism called Risālah Qushairiyah. He told the Imam all about his spiritual states, on which the Imam asked him to continue his studies. He followed the advice and began studying, and his spiritual enlightenment grew every day. He says that I studied for three years, until one day I took the pen and found it empty. I went to the service of Imam Qushairi and told him about this. He said: when the knowledge has abandoned you, you should also abandon it and engage in the Spiritual Path. I brought my belongings from the madrasah to the khaniqah and began serving the Imam.
He was a sincere and true servant of his master. One day, the Imam went to the bathhouse and he also accompanied him. He filled the bath for him with a few buckets of water. When the Imam came out, he prayed and then asked: who filled the bath with water? He did not reply, fearing that he might have done something against his wish. The Imam asked again, and then again for the third time, so he replied that it was this servant. The Imam said: O Abu-Ali! whatever Abul-Qasim Qushairi has achieved in seventy years, you have achieved with only a bucket of water. He continued to serve the Imam for some time and received spiritual training.
One day he was overwhelmed by a strange spiritual state, and reported this to his master. The Imam replied: Abu Ali! My journey is only to this station, and I do not know what is ahead. Hearing this, he thought: now I need a master that can take me higher than this station.
Then he met Shaykh Abul-Qasim Gurganī, who made him a gem of the spiritual world.
Shaykh Sharaf al-Dīn Yahyā Manerī reports in his letter 23 in the Hundred Letters, that once Shaykh Abū-Alī Fārmadī asked his master Shaykh Gurganī about a dream he had had: “You spoke to me in such and such a fashion in the dream: why, O Shaykh?” Shaykh Abul Qāsim Gurgānī turned his face away and said: “If there were no room for ‘why’ in your heart, then it would not have found its way to your lips!”
Shaykh Alī bin Usmān al-Hujwerī quddisa sirruhū, who was one of the chief deputies of Shaykh Gurgānī, has also praised Shaykh Fārmadī in his famous book Kashf al-Mahjūb with the following words:
“All his disciples are ornaments of the society in which they move. Please God, he will have an excellent successor, whose authority the whole body of Sufis will recognize, namely, Abū Alī al-Fadl b. Muhammad al-Fārmadī (may God lengthen his days), who has not omitted to fulfil his duty towards his master, and has turned his back on all (worldly) things, and through the blessings of that (renunciation) has been made by God the spiritual mouthpiece (zabān-i hāl) of that venerable Shaykh.”
Shaykh Fārmadī passed away in 477 AH (or by some sources in 511 AH). He is buried near his village Fārmad, about 20 km north of Mashhad city, in northwest Iran.
Aap ki wilaadat 402 Hijri (1011 A.D.) me Tus ke qareeb Faarmad (Iran) me hui.
Aap ke waalid ka naam Muhammad ibn Ali hai.
Aap Nishapur me madrasa me ta’aleem haasil kar rahe the. Is dauraan Shaikh Abu Saeed bin Abul Khair Miana se tashreef laaye aur taqreer farma rahe the. Un ke baare me sunkar Aap bhi un ki mehfil me pahunche. Un ke nooraani chehre ki ziyarat se Aap ko Hazrat se aur Soofiya se mohabbat ho gai.
Ek baar Aap madrasa me kamre me baithe hue the ke achaanak Aap ko Hazrat ki ziyarat karne ki khwaahish hui. Aap Hazrat ki qayaamgaah par pahunche magar Hazrat ka baahar aane ka waqt muqarrar nahi tha. Is liye Aap ne thodi der intazaar kiya. Magar zyada intazaar na kar sake aur baahar aaye to dekha ke Hazrat apne shaagirdo ke saath mehfil e sama me hain. Aap bhi ek hazrat ke saath andar aaye aur mehfil e sama me ek kone me baith gaye. Aap ne socha ke Hazrat mujhe dekh nahi sakenge. Sama me Shaikh Abu Saeed bin Abul Khair ne aalam e wajd me apna kurta phaad daala. Jab wo wajd se baahar aaye to unho ne apne kurte ke tukde apne shaagirdo ko taqseem kiye. Phir Hazrat ne kurte ki aastin apne haath me li aur farmaaya ‘Aye Abu Ali Tusi! Kahan ho?’ Aap ne socha ke Hazrat apne shaagirdo me se kisi ko bula rahe hain? Hazrat ne dobaara Aap ka naam pukaara. Aap khaamosh rahe. Jab Hazrat ne phir se Aap ka naam pukaara to logo ne Aap se kaha ke Hazrat Aap hi ko bula rahe hain. Aap aage aaye aur Hazrat ke paas gaye to Hazrat ne Aap ko apne kurta mubarak ki aastin ata farmai aur farmaaya ke ‘Ise hifaazat se rakhna.’ Is ke baad Aap ne hazrat ki khidmat me beshumaar faiz haasil kiye.
Jab Shaikh Abu Saeed bin Abul Khair Nishapur se tashreef le gaye tab Aap Imaam Abul Qaasim Qushairi ki baargaah me aaye to Hazrat ne pehle madrasa ki ta’aleem mukammal karne ke liye farmaaya. 3 saal tak ta’aleem haasil karne ke baad ek martaba Aap ne jab qalam uthaaya to dekha ke wo khaali ho gaya. Aap ne Hazrat ki khidmat me aakar bataaya to Hazrat ne farmaaya ‘Ab tumhare madrasa chhodkar baatini ta’aleem haasil karne ka waqt aa gaya hai.’
Aap Imaam Abul Qaasim Qushairi ki khidmat me rehkar ta’aleem haasil karte rahe.
Ek martaba Aap ne Hazrat ke liye hamaam me paani ke chand bartan bharkar rakhe. Jab Hazrat tashreef laaye to dua farmaai aur puchha ke ‘In bartan me paani bharkar kis ne rakha hai?’ Aap ne socha ke shaayad koi gustaakhi ho gai ho aur dar ki wajah se khaamosh rahe. Hazrat ne dobaara puchha. Jab teesri baar puchaa to aap ne arz kiya ‘Is khaadim ne rakha hai.’ Imaam Abul Qaasim Qushairi ne farmaaya ‘Abu Ali! Abul Qaasim Qushairi ne 70 saal me jo kuchh jama kiya hai wo tum ne sirf in paani ke bartan ke zariye paa liya.’
Aap ne Hazrat ki khidmat jaari rakhi aur Tasawwuf ki ta’aleem haasil karte rahe.
Ek martaba Aap ko kuchh ajeeb kaifiyat mehsoos hui. Aap ne jab Hazrat ko bataaya to unho ne farmaaya ‘Abu Ali! Mera safar is maqaam tak hi tha. Yaha se aage main nahi bata sakta.’
Aap waha se rukhsat hue aur mursheed ki talaash shuru ki. Jab Shaikh Abul Qaasim Gurgani ki baargaah me pahunche to un se bai’at ki aur faiz aur ta’aleem haasil karte rahe.
Aap ka nikaah Khwaja Abul Qaasim Gurgani rahmatullāhi alaihi ki saahabzaadi se hua.
Aap Hazrat Khwaja Abul Qaasim Gurgani rahmatullāhi alaihi ke mureed aur khalifa hain.
Aap Juinaidi silsila ke shaikh hain.
Aap ke khulfa :
(1) Hazrat Khwaja Yousuf al-Hamadani rahmatullāhi alaihi,
(2) Hazrat Imaam Muhammad al-Ghazaali rahmatullāhi alaihi.
Aap ka wisaal 4 Rabi-ul-Awwal 477 Hijri (10 July 1084 A.D.) ko hua.
Aap ka mazaar Tus ke qareeb Faarmad (Khorasan, Iran) me hai.
ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Hazrat Khwaja Abu Ali, Fazl al-Faarmadi rahmatullāhi alaihi aur tamaam Auliya Allāh ke waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.