Hazrat Shāh Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidi Fārūqi Dehlavi then Madani (1802-1860), may Allah sanctify his soul, was one of the most popular Naqshbandi shaykhs of India, and the spiritual heir of Hazrat Shah Ghulām Ali Dehlavi.
He was born in 1217 AH (1802 CE) in Rāmpur, India. He is the elder son of Hazrat Shah Abū Saeed Mujaddidi Dehlavi who was the first spiritual successor to Hazrat Shah Ghulām Ali Dehlavi.
His father was first a disciple of Hazrat Shah Dargāhi, a famous shaykh at that time, and would often bring his little son to the shaykh’s company. When Shah Abu Saeed went to Hazrat Shah Ghulam Ali Dehlavi for seeking advanced stages of Wilāyah (sainthood), Shah Ahmed Saeed also accompanied him. Thus he entered the service of Shah Ghulam Ali from his young age.
He was young and was still seeking Islamic education. Hazrat Shah Ghulam Ali advised him that one should combine the Haal (spirituality) with Qaal (literary education), so you should learn the external knowledge from the scholars and join the Halqa when free. Thus he advanced his external education and internal/spiritual training together. He would learn the Islamic knowledge, specially the science of Hadith from his father’s uncle Shah Sirāj Ahmed Mujaddidi and other scholars. Meanwhile he would also continue seeking his spiritual training from Shah Ghulam Ali who trained him in all the prevalent Sufi methods of the time.
Finally, when he completed the spiritual training and reached the highest stages of Wilāyah, his shaykh gave him authority in seven Sufi orders, mainly the Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi tarīqa. He was just 22 years old when his shaykh departed from this world on 22 Safar 1240 AH (October 1824). His father Shah Abū Saeed had been appointed by the shaykh as his ultimate heir who succeeded the spiritual movement and the noble khānqāh Mazhariya. After striving to train thousands of disciples for about ten years, his father left for Hajj and passed away in the return journey, in the night of 1st Shawwal 1250 AH (31 January 1835). His body was brought to Delhi and finally laid to rest in this sublime khanqah. Hazrat Shah Ahmed Saeed became the next successor to his shaykh after the demise of his father, and inherited the khanqah and all the followers.
Migration to Madinah
During his life, most of India was captured by the British who had reached close to Delhi where he lived. The Muslim scholars declared India as Dar al-Harb (legally, in state of war) and allowed for Jihad against the British. The uprising of 1857 was a key event in the history of India, in which the capital Delhi was taken over by the British and the long rule of Muslim kings over India came to an end. This uprising was supported by a fatwa (legal ruling) of the Islamic scholars, and one of them was Shah Ahmed Saeed himself. Indeed, he was the first to affirm it and sign it.
This fatwa made the British rulers his foes, and he had to flee from Delhi in order to evade the oppression and injustice of the new rulers who wanted to persecute him. He decided to migrate to the holy city of Madinah. During the journey, he stayed for 18 days at khanqah Mūsā Zaī Sharīf, established by his chief khalifa Hājī Dost Muhammad Qandahari in district Derā Ismāīl Khān (presently in Pakistan). There he declared Haji Dost Muhammad his successor and made him the custodian of khānqah Mazhariya in Delhi and commanded him to either reside there himself or send a khalifa to take control of it. Haji Dost Muhammad decided to stay at Musa Zai and presented his khalifa Mawlana Rahīm Bakhsh Ajmeri to his shaykh for residing at the Delhi khanqah.
Finally, from Musa Zai Sharif he left for Makkah and performed Hajj there in 1274 AH (1858). In Rabi al-Awwal 1275 AH (October 1858) he reached Madinah, the city of light.
During the journey, numerous people did bay’ah with him including scholars, and his fame reached far and wide. He lived in Madinah for about two years. Thousands of people there did bayah with him. His biographer says that if he had lived there for few more years, number of his murids would have reached hundreds of thousands.
Hazrat Shah Ahmed Saeed had four sons and one daughter:
- Hazrat Shah Abdur-Rasheed Mujaddidi
- Hazrat Shah Abdul-Hameed Mujaddidi (died in childhood)
- Hazrat Shah Muhammad Umar Mujaddidi
- Hazrat Shah Muhammad Mazhar Mujaddidi
- His daughter Roshan-Ãrā, may Allah be pleased with them all.
Eighty names from his deputies are reported by his son Shah Muhammad Mazhar in the book Manāqib-e-Ahmadiya. Those blessed names are listed below.
- Hazrat Shaykh Hājī Dost Muhammad Qandahārī, his chief deputy and spiritual successor, died 22 Shawwāl 1284 AH (February 1868)
- Hazrat Shāh Abd al-Ghanī Fārūqī Mujaddidī (born 4 Sha’bān 1234 AH, died 7 Muharram 1296 AH / 3 December 1878), his younger brother
- Hazrat Shāh Abd al-Mughnī Fārūqī Mujaddidī, his youngest brother
- Hazrat Shāh Abd ar-Rashīd Fārūqī Mujaddidī, his eldest son
- Hazrat Shāh Muhammad Umar Fārūqī Mujaddidī, his son
- Hazrat Shāh Muhammad Mazhar Fārūqī Mujaddidī, his son. He was Shaykh of Mawlānā Murād al-Manzilvī al-Makkī who translated the letters of Imām Rabbānī Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindī into Arabic.
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muftī Muhammad Irshād Husain Mujaddidī Rāmpurī (1248-1311 AH)
- Hazrat Mawlānā Waliy an-Nabī Mujaddidī Rāmpurī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Sayyid Abd as-Salām Haswī, son of Sayyid Abul-Qāsim Hasvī
- Hazrat Muftī Hāfiz Razā Alī Fārūqī Hanafī Banārasī (1240-1312 AH)
- Hazrat Nawāb Mustafā Khān Dihlawī
- Hazrat Shaykh Ahmad Jān Dihlawī
- Hazrat Shāh Abd al-Wahīd Fārūqī Mujaddidī
- Hazrat Shaykh Khurshīd Ahmad Fārūqī Mujaddidī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Habīb-Allāh Multānī, who accompanied him in Hajj
- Hazrat Mawlānā Husain Alī Bājorī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Qurbān Bukhārī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Yūsuf Arganjī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Hājī Abd al-Karīm Kūlābī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Husām ad-Dīn Bājorī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Tāj Muhammad Qandahārī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Safar Darwāzī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Pīr Muhammad Qandahārī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Yūsuf Kūlābī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Sharīf Kūlābī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Nūr Muhammad Kūlābī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Iskandar Bukhārī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Faiz Muhammad Ghaznavī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Sharf ad-Dīn Ghaznavī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Faiz Ahmad Qandahārī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Jān Qandahārī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Zahīr ad-Dīn Bājorī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Jawās
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Kabīr Qandahārī Shaheed
- Hazrat Mir Abdullāh Pishāwarī, buried in Madīnah
- Hazrat Hāji Mīr Mazhar Kābulī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Sayyid Bashīr Alī Amrohī
- Hazrat Shāh Abd al-Hakīm Punjābī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Ghawth Naqshbandī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Sālim Qandahārī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Abd al-Latīf Qandahārī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Chandan Khān
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Nawāb
- Hazrat Shaykh Abūbakr Rūmī Diyārbakrī Shāfi’ī
- Hazrat Shaykh Muhsin Basrī Hanbalī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Ghulām Muhammad Ghaznavī
- Hazrat Hājī Gul Muhammad Rūmī
- Hazrat Shaykh Sayyid Mahmūd Husainī Afandī Makkī (1233-1304 AH)
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Shāh Lakhnavī
- Hazrat Sayyid Qamr ad-Dīn Ahmad Lakhnavī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Abul-Hasan Lakhnavī Makkī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Murād Jalālābādī
- Hazrat Shaykh Rahīm ad-Dīn Dihlawī
- Hazrat Shaykh Hasan Afandī Rūmī
- Hazrat Hājī Alī Razā Afandī
- Hazrat Sayyid Ibrāhīm Kurdī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Rahmat-Allāh Bukhārī
- Hazrat Hājī Ahmad Afandī Azmīrī
- Hazrat Munshī Razā Alī Hyderābādī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Muhammad Husain Hyderābādī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Abd ar-Rahīm Chīnī, Malībār, India
- Hazrat Akhund Hamza Bājorī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Abd al-Quddūs Kashmīrī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Bādshāh Mīr
- Hazrat Mawlānā Yūnus Yārkandī
- Hazrat Sayyid Uthmān Nasafī Qureshī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Hasan Ghaznavī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Nādir
- Hazrat Mawlānā Sālār
- Hazrat Mawlānā Nazar Muhammad Khūqandī
- Hazrat Mawlānā Abd al-Hakīm Charkhī
- Hazrat Shaykh Ahmad Bakhsh Kurdī
He passed away on 2nd Rabi al-Awwal 1277 AH (18/19 September 1860) in Madinah and was buried in the graveyard Jannat-ul-Baqi alongside the sacred tomb of Sayyidina Usmān Ghani, may Allah be pleased with him. His Janazah prayer (funeral) was attended by a huge crowd, and the people of Madinah said we have never witnessed this many people attending a funeral before.
Hazrat Shah Ahmed Saeed was an author and wrote the following books:
- Sa’eed al-Bayān Fī Mawlid Sayyid al-Ins wal-Jān (سعيد البيان في مولد الانس والجان), Urdu, about the Mawlid-un-Nabi (Mīlād in Urdu).
- Az-Zikr al-sharīf Fī Athbāt al-Mawlid al-Munīb (الذكر الشريف في اثبات المولد المنيب), Persian, also about the Mawlid
- Athbāt al-Mawlid wal-Qiyām (اثبات المولد والقيام), Arabic, about Mawlid, written in refutation of a book written by Molvi Mahboob Ali Ja’fri
- Al-Fawāid az-Zābita Fī Athbāt ar-Rābita (الفوائد الضابطه في اثبات الرابطه), Persian
- Al-Anhār al-Arba’ā Dar Bayān Salāsil-e-Arba’ā (الانهار الاربعه در بيان سلاسل اربعه), Persian, describing the spiritual lessons of four Sufi orders: Naqshbandi, Mujaddidi, Qādri and Chishti.
- Al-Haqq al-Mubīn Fī al-Radd Alā al-Wahhābiyyīn (الحق المبين في الرد على الوهابيين), written in refutation of the Wahhābi sect, a newly emerged cult in the Arabia whose influence had reached India at that time.
- 137 of his letters collected by his chief khalifa Hājī Dost Muhammad Qandahāri, and recently published under the name Tuhfā Zawwāriyā. Many other letters have also survived but are not included in this collection.
Hazrat Khwaja Shaah Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidi rahmatullāhi alaihi :
Aap ki wilaadat 1217 Hijri (1802 A.D.) me Rampur me hui.
Aap ke waalid ka naam Hazrat Shaah Abu Saeed Zaki-ul-Qadr Dehlawi bin Shaikh Safi-ul-Qadr Mujaddidi al-Faarooqi rahmatullāhi alaihi aur waalda ka naam Zubdah binte Shaikh Ghulaam Siddeeq hai.
Aap Hazrat Mujaddid-e-Alfe-Ṡaani Imaam Shaikh Ahmad Faarooqi Sirhindi rahmatullāhi alaihi ki nasl se hain.
Aap bachpan me apne waalid ke saath Hazrat Shaah Dargaahi rahmatullāhi alaihi ki khidmat me jaate rehte.
Is ke baad apne waalid ke saath Hazrat Shaah Ghulaam Ali Dehlawi rahmatullāhi alaihi ki khidmat me bhi jaate rehte.
Jawaan hone ke baad jab Aap ne taaleem haasil karna shuru kiya to Hazrat Shaah Ghulaam Ali Dehlawi ne farmaaya ‘Qaal (literary education) ke saath Haal (spirituality) ki bhi taaleem haasil karo. Ulama ke paas uloome zaahiri ki taaleem haasil karo aur jab waqt mile to uloome baatini ki taaleem bhi haasil karte raho.’
Is tarah Aap zaahiri aur baatini ta’aleem haasil karte rahe.
Aap ne apne waalid ke chacha Hazrat Shaah Siraaj Ahmad Mujaddidi rahmatullāhi alaihi aur deegar ulama se Hadees ki taaleem haasil ki.
Aur Hazrat Shaah Ghulaam Ali Dehlawi rahmatullāhi alaihi se Tasawwuf ki ta’aleem haasil ki.
Taaleeem mukammal hone ke baad Hazrat Shaah Ghulaam Ali Dehlawi rahmatullāhi alaihi ne aap ko khilaafat ata farmai.
22 Safar 1240 Hijri (October 1824 A.D.) ko Hazrat ke wisaal ke baad aap ke waalid Hazrat Shaah Abū Saeed ne 10 saal tak khaanqaah e Mazhariya ki zimmedaari sambhali.
Hajj se waapasi ke safar me 1 Shawwaal 1250 Hijri (31 January 1835 A.D.) aap ke waalid ka inteqaal hua.
Un ke baad Aap ne Khaanqaah e Mazhariya ki zimmedaari sambhali.
Jab Angrezo ne Hindustan par qabza karna shuru kiya to ulama ke saath aap ne Angrezo ke khilaaf Jihaad ka fatwa jaari kiya.
1273 Hijri (1857 A.D.) ke gadar ke nakaam hone ke baad Angrez hukoomat ke zulm se bachne ke liye Aap Madeena munawwara ki taraf rawaana hue. Dauraane safar Aap Hazrat Haaji Dost Muhammad Kandahari ki Khaanqaah Moosā Zai Shareef (Dera Ismāeel Khan) me 18 din thehre.
Aap ne Hazrat Haaji Dost Muhammad Kandahari rahmatullāhi alaihi ko Delhi jaakar Khaanqaah e Mazhariya ki zimmedaari sambhalne ke liye farmaaya ya apne kisi khalifa ko Delhi bhejne ke liye farmaaya.
Hazrat Haaji Dost Muhammad Kandahari khud Khaanqaah Moosā Zai Shareef me rehna chaaha aur Hazrat Maulana Raheem Bakhsh Ajmeri ko Delhi bheja.
Is ke baad Aap safar karke Makka mukarrama pahunche aur 1274 Hijri (1858 A.D.) me Hajj ada kiya. Phir Rabi-ul-Awwal 1275 Hijri (October 1858 A.D.) me Madeena munawwara tashreef laaye.
Makka se Madeena ke safar ke dauraan aur Madeena munawwara me 2 saal ke qayaam ke dauraan beshumaar log aap ke mureed hue jin me bahot saare ulama bhi saamil hain.
Aap ki likhi hui mash’hoor kitaaben :
(1) Saeed-ul-Bayaan Fee Mawlid Sayyid ul-Ins wal-Jaan
(2) Az-Zikr ul-shareef Fee Aṡbaat al-Mawlid ul-Muneeb
(3) Aṡbaat ul-Mawlid wal-Qiyaam
(4) Al-Fawaa’id az-Zaabita Fee Aṡbaat ar-Raabita
(5) Al-Anhaar-ul-Arbah Dar Bayaan Salaasil-e-Arbah
(6) Al-Haqq-ul-Mubeen Feel Radd Alā al-Wahhaabiyeen.
♦ Aap ke Khalifa Haaji Dost Muhammad Qandhari ne Aap ke 137 khato ko ek kitaab me jama kiye hain, Jo ‘Tuhfa Zawwaariya’ naam se shaaye ki gai hai.
Aap ke 4 saahabzaade aur 1 saahabzaadi hain.
(1) Hazrat Shaah Abdur Rasheed
(2) Hazrat Shaah Abdul Hameed
(3) Hazrat Shaah Muhammad Umar
(4) Hazrat Shaah Muhammad Mazhar.
Aap Hazrat Shaah Ghulaam Ali Dehlawi rahmatullāhi alaihi ke mureed aur khalifa hain.
Aap ‘Naqshbandi Mujaddidi’ silsila ke Shaikh hain.
Aap ke khulfa :
(1) Hazrat Khwaja Shaikh Haaji Dost Muhammad Kandahari rahmatullāhi alaihi
(2) Hazrat Maulana Mufti Muhammad Irshaad Husain Mujaddidi Rampuri
(3) Hazrat Shaah Abdul Ghani Faarooqi Mujaddidi
(4) Hazrat Shaah Abdul Mughni Faarooqi Mujaddidi
(5) Hazrat Shaah Abdur Rasheed Faarooqi Mujaddidi
(6) Hazrat Shaah Muhammad Umar Faarooqi Mujaddidi
(7) Hazrat Shaah Muhammad Mazhar Faarooqi Mujaddidi
(8) Hazrat Maulana Waliy-un-Nabi Mujaddidi Rampuri
(9) Hazrat Nawaab Mustafa Khan Dehlawi
(10) Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Jaan Dehlawi
(11) Hazrat Shaah Abdul Waahid Faarooqi Mujaddidi
(12) Hazrat Shaikh Khurshid Ahmad Faarooqi Mujaddidi
(13) Hazrat Maulana Habeebullāh Multani
(14) Hazrat Maulana Husain Ali Bajori
(15) Hazrat Maulana Husaam-ud-deen Bajori
(16) Hazrat Maulana Zaheer-ud-deen Bajori
(17) Hazrat Akhund Hamza Bajori
(18) Hazrat Maulana Yousuf Arganji
(19) Hazrat Maulana Safar Darwazi
(20) Hazrat Maulana Haaji Abdul Kareem Kulabi
(21) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Yousuf Kulabi
(22) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Shareef Kulabi
(23) Hazrat Maulana Noor Muhammad Kulabi
(24) Hazrat Maulana Qurbaan Bukhari
(25) Hazrat Maulana Iskandar Bukhari
(26) Hazrat Maulana Rahmatullāh Bukhari
(27) Hazrat Maulana Faiz Muhammad Ghaznawi
(28) Hazrat Maulana Sharf-ud-deen Ghaznawi
(29) Hazrat Maulana Hasan Ghaznawi
(30) Hazrat Maulana Ghulaam Muhammad Ghaznawi
(31) Hazrat Maulana Taaj Muhammad Kandahari
(32) Hazrat Maulana Peer Muhammad Kandahari
(33) Hazrat Maulana Faiz Ahmad Kandahari
(34) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Jaan Kandahari
(35) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Saalim Kandahari
(36) Hazrat Maulana Abdul Lateef Kandahari
(37) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Kabeer Shaheed Kandahari
(38) Hazrat Maulana Jawaas
(39) Hazrat Meer Abdullāh Peshawari
(40) Hazrat Haaji Meer Mazhar Kabuli
(41) Hazrat Maulana Sayyed Basheer Ali Amrohi
(42) Hazrat Maulana Sayyed Abdus Salaam Haswi bin Sayyed Abul Qaasim Haswi
(43) Hazrat Shaah Abdul Hakeem Punjabi
(44) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Ghauṡ Naqshbandi
(45) Hazrat Maulana Chandan Khan
(46) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Nawaab
(47) Hazrat Shaikh Abu Bakr Rumi Diyarbakri Shaafi’i
(48) Hazrat Shaikh Mohsin Basri Hanbali
(49) Hazrat Shaikh Sayyed Mahmood Husaini Afandi Makki
(50) Hazrat Maulana Abul Hasan Lakhnawi Makki
(51) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Shaah Lakhnawi
(52) Hazrat Sayyed Qamr ad-deen Ahmad Lakhnawi
(53) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Muraad Jalalabadi
(54) Hazrat Shaikh Raheem-ud-deen Dehlawi
(55) Hazrat Haaji Gul Muhammad Rumi
(56) Hazrat Shaikh Hasan Afandi Rumi
(57) Hazrat Haaji Ali Raza Afandi
(58) Hazrat Sayyed Ibrāheem Kurdi
(59) Hazrat Mufti Haafiz Raza Ali Faarooqi Hanafi Banarasi
(60) Hazrat Haaji Ahmad Afandi Azmiri
(61) Hazrat Munshi Raza Ali Hyderabadi
(62) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Husain Hyderabadi
(63) Hazrat Maulana Abdur Raheem Chini (Malibar)
(64) Hazrat Maulana Abdul Quddoos Kashmiri
(65) Hazrat Maulana Baadshaah Meer
(66) Hazrat Maulana Younus Yarkandi
(67) Hazrat Sayyed Uṡmaan Nasafi Qureshi
(68) Hazrat Maulana Naadir
(69) Hazrat Maulana Saalaar
(70) Hazrat Maulana Nazar Muhammad Khuqandi
(71) Hazrat Maulana Abdul Hakeem Charkhi
(72) Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Bakhsh Kurdi.
Aap ka wisaal 2 Rabi ul Awwal 1277 Hijri (18/19 September 1860 A.D.) ko hua.
Aap ka mazaar Jannatul Baqi, Madeena munawwara me Hazrat Uṡmaan Ghani radiy-Allāhu ta’ala anhu ke bagal me hai.
ALLĀH ta’ala us ke Habeeb sallallāhu alaihi wa sallam ke sadqe me
Aur Hazrat Khwaja Shaah Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidi rahmatullāhi alaihi aur tamaam Auliya Allāh ke waseele se
Sab ko mukammal ishq e Rasool ata farmae aur Sab ke Eimaan ki hifaazat farmae aur Sab ko nek amal karne ki taufiq ata farmae.
Aur Sab ko dunya wa aakhirat me kaamyaabi ata farmae aur Sab ki nek jaa’iz muraado ko puri farmae.