He was born at Aurangabad in Hijri 1126 (1717 AD). He was Siddiqui from His father side and Syed from his mother’s side. His mother was from the family of Hazrat Syed Banda Nawaz Ghesu Daraaz R.A.
When Hazrat Nizam-ud-din Aurangabadi (R.A.) gave the information of his son’s birth to his Murshid Hazrat Kaleemullah Jahanabadi R.A., He sent his cloth for the new born and named him Fakhr-ud-din and told that the child will establish a big silsila (Sufi Order), this came true and later on Hazrat Fakhre Jahaan contributed in spreading the Chishti order and establishing it back as the dominant Sufi order of the sub-continent. This sub-branch of Chishti Order is called now as the Fakhriya Silsila.
From child hood Hazrat Fakhre Jaahaan R.A. received good quality of education. His father himself was a big scholar who monitored his education and appointed famous scholars and teachers for his education. In childhood only he was initiated as a disciple by his father Hazrat Nizam-ud-din Aurangabadi (R.A.) and was appointed by him as his spiritual successor.
At the time of visaal of his father, Hazrat Fakhre Jahaan was of sixteen years of age. He stayed at Aurangabad for some years and made lot of disciples there. He received the instruction to move to Delhi from his father in his dreams. He reached Delhi in 1165 Hijri (1751-52 AD) and rented a house near the Ajmeri gate and established a Madarasa and started teaching Fiqh, Hadees,Tareeqat & Tasawwuf and initiated people into the Chishti order. The Madarsa became very famous and students from other countries also came to study in large numbers. His library also became very famous. He made remarkable services both as a Sufi and as a scholar. His debate with Shah Waliullah Mohaddis Dehalvi on the issue of Hazrat Hassan Basari (R.A.) receiving wilayat from Maula-e-Kaenaat Hazrat Ali (K.W.K.), Shah Abdul Haq Mohaddis Dehalvi didn’t accepted this, but this has been the belief of the Chishtis as the spiritual Chishti lineage from Hazrat Ali (K.W.K.) transferred through Hazrat Hussan Basari (R.A.).After this debate Shah Waliullah Mohaddis Dehalvi accepted that Hassan Basari (R.A.) received wilayat from Maula-e-Kaenaat Hazrat Ali (K.W.K.)
He wrote following books:
01. Nizam-ul-Aqaaid :
Contains matters related to belief of Ahl-e-Sunnat wal Jamaat as per the mazhab of Hazrat Imaam-e-Aazam Abu Hanifa (R.A.)
02. Risala Marziya :
This book was written to explain one statement from Hazrat Ghaus-ul-Aazam R.A.’s book ‘Ghunniyat-ut-talibeen’. In this book Hazrat Ghaus-ul-Aazam R.A. included the Hanafi Branch of fiqh into the Marziya,but some people contradict this and say that Hazrat Ghaus-ul-Aazam R.A. has not written so. Firka-e-Marziya were the people who believed in the Rahmat of Allah too much and ignored His anger. Hazrat Fakhre Jahaan R.A. explained that the reason for Hazrat Ghaus-ul-Aazam R.A. to include Hanafi Mazhab in Firka-e-Marziya is that the Hanafi people give more stress on Rahmat of Allah but he added that this stress on Allah’s rahmat is less when compared to other mazhabs.
03. Fakhr-ul-Hassan :
This was the most famous book written by Hazrat Fakhre Jahaan R.A This book was written to prove that Hazrat Hassan Basari (R.A.) received khilafat from Hazrat Ali (K.W.K.) with the help of Hadees of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). This book was written in reply of the statement made by Shah Waliullah Mohaddis Dehalvi that ‘the Chishti spiritual chain is weak since Hazrat Hassan Basri R.A. couldn’t have received khilafat from Hazrat Ali (K.W.K.) since He was only 15 years old when Hazrat Ali (K.W.K.) left form Madina to Kufa. Hazrat Hassan Basri R.A. proved with Hadees that Shah Waliullah Mohaddis Dehalvi’s was wrong and Hazrat Hassan Basri R.A. received khilafat rom Hazrat Ali (K.W.K.). This book became very famous and is still considered one of the best references on the subject.
The Visal of Hazrat Fakhr-e-Jahaan R.A. happened on 26, Jamadiussani (6 May 1783) at that his age was 73.
His mazaar shareef is at Mahrauli,New Delhi In the compound of the Mazar Sareef of Hazrat Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki R.A.
Name of some of Hazrat Fakhr-e-Jahaan R.A. is as following:
01. Qutb-e-Aalam Madaar-e-Aazam Niyaz Be-Niyaz Hazrat Shah Niyaz Ahmed Barelwi R.A.
02. Hazrat Khwaja Noor Muhammad Muharwi R.A.
03. Hazrat Badiuddin Saheb R.A.
04. Hazrat Maulwi Noorullah Sahab R.A.
05. Hazrat Maulwi Fareeduddin Sahab R.A.
06. Hazrat Fareeduddin Sahab R.A.
07. Hazrat Muhammad Ghaus ( Maternal Grandson of Hazrat Kaleemullah Shahjahanabadi R.A.)
08. Miyan Qutubuddin Sharki Sahab R.A.
09. Maulawi Abdul Wahab Sahab Beekaneri R.A.
10. Haafiz Saadullah Sahab R.A.
11. Maulana Ziauddin Sahab Jaipuri R.A.
12. Haji Muhammad Wasil Sahab R.A.
13. Sayed Muhammad Meer Sahab R.A
14. Maulwi Azmatullah Sahab R.A.
15. Shah Muhammad Aazam Sahab R.A.
16. Hazrat Ghulam Fareed Chishti Sahab R.A.
17. Miyan Asmatullah Sahab R.A.
18. Haji Ahmed Sahab R.A.
Among these Hazrat Shah Niyaz Ahmed R.A. and Hazrat Noor Muhammad Muharwi R.A. contributed mainly in spreading the Silsla-e Fakhriya.
Through Hazrat Shah Niyaz Silsila Fakhriya R.A. spread to various part India, Qabul,Badakhshan,Samarkand,Yarkand,Bukhaara,IranArabia. In India Khaneqah were established & at various places in India like Allahabad,Phoolpur,Gwalior,Jaipur.
Through Hazrat Khwaja Noor Muhamamd Muharwi Silsila Fakhriya spread to the undivided Punjab and other part of the subcontinent.