Hazrat Abu_Dawood__Basra_Iraq (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ)

In the name of Allah, The Beneficient, The Merciful.

Name, Genealogy and Lineage

Imam Abu Dawud Sulaiman ibn Ash`ath ibn Ishaq ibn Bashir ibn Shaddad ibn `Umar ibn `Imran al-Azdi Sajastani.

Year and Place of Birth

Imam Abu Dawud was born in Sajistan, a famous city in Khurasan in the year 202 A.H. He belonged to the Arab tribe, Azd. Even though he was born in Sajistan he spent the greater part of his life at Basrah which was the seat of Islamic learning in his time. Imam Abu Dawud also travelled for collecting hadith. Many times he visited Bagdad. He also went to Hijaz, Egypt, al-Jazirah, Nishapur, Syria and Isfahan.

Special Attributes

He was blessed with an exceptional mind. Imam Abu Dawud had to read a book only once to commit its entire contents to memory. He was well versed in the criticism of hadith and an expert in distinguishing the sound hadith from the weak and defective ones.

Only four persons are reported to have earned their names for the criticism of hadith. They are: Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam Abu Dawud and Imam Nasa’i. Imam Abu Dawud lived during the time when the Muslim world was full of eminent scholars. He had so much command over hadith, he was considered by many as Imam al-muhaddithin of his time.

Besides his expertise in hadith he was also a great jurist. He had keen insight in fiqh and ijtihad. He was a religious man. He led a pious and ascetic life. He devoted most of his time for worship, devotion and remembrance of Allah. He always kept away from men of rank, the company of sultans and courtiers.

It is stated that Imam Abu Dawud used to wear one of his sleeves wide and the other correctly sized. When he was asked for the reason of this oddity he replied, “To store notes on hadith. I consider widening the other sleeve unnecessarily as an extravagance”. It is not clear to which school of thought he belonged. Some scholars say he was a Hanbali jurist, others regarded him as a Shafi’i jurist.

His Work

Imam Abu Dawud heard hadith from 300 persons who were his teachers. Some were: Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq ibn Rahawaiy, Abu Thaur, Yahya ibn Ma’in. For one to grasp his elevated status, he narrated hadith to the teachers of Imam Ahmad. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal also narrated one hadith from him. Among the students of Imam Abu Dawud are great personalities like:
Ibn Arabi, Abu `Isa al-Tirmidhi and Abu `Abdur-Rahman An Nasa’i.

They were transmitters of his famous work Sunan Abu Dawud. Imam Muslim was also one of his pupils. Imam Abu Dawud’s works are:

Kitab Al Radd Ala’ Ahl al Qadar

Kitab Al Masa’il

Musnad Malik

Kitab Al Marasil

Sunan Abu Dawud

Sunan Abu Dawud

His most famous of all his works is Sunan Abu Dawud. It contains 4800 traditions which were taken out from a collection of 500,000 hadith.

He completed its compilation at Bagdad in 241 A.H. He presented the completed compilation to his beloved teacher Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal who was greatly pleased at this collection.

Sunan Abu Dawud is an important collection of hadith: Most of the scholars have assigned it to third position among the six authentic books of hadith. It is only after the compilation of Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

A few statements from scholars of hadith concerning Sunan Abu Dawud:

Al-Khattabi said:

Sunan Abu Dawud is an excellent book. No such parallel work has been produced so far in religious sciences. It has gained popularity amongst the people. It has a decisive position among various classes of scholars and jurists. All have benefited equally from it. The people of Iraq, Eygpt, Maghrib and most of the countries depended upon it.

Ibn al-Jawzi said:

Abu Dawud was an eminent doctor of hadith and an outstanding scholar. No one has compiled a book like his Sunan.

Ibn Kathir remarked:

Sunan Abu Dawud is considered to be a famous and popular work among scholars.

Imam Abu Dawud himself has stated:

From this book of mine four (4) hadith are sufficient for an intelligent and insightful person. They are:

  • Deeds are to be judged only by intentions.
  • Part of a man’s good observance of Islam is that he leaves alone that which does not concern him.
  • None of you can be a believer unless you love for your brother that which you love for yourself.
  • The permitted (halal) is clear, and the forbidden (haram) is clear, between these two are doubtful matters. Whosoever abstains from these doubtful matters has saved his religion.

The traditions compiled in Sunan Abu Dawud were generally followed by companions, successors and their followers. It is a basic source of knowledge about the legal points of views held by Imam Malik, Sufyan Al-Thawri and Al-Awza’i. It serves as an arbiter for disagreement among jurists.

His Death

Imam Abu Dawud died on Friday 16th Shawwal 275 A.H. at the age of 72.

Abu Dawud Sulayman Ibn al-Ash’ath al-Azdi, commonly known as Abu Dawud was one of the scholars who compiled the six collections of hadith and was famous for his book Sunan Abu Dawud, which is one of the references of the Prophet’s Hadith (sayings).

He lived in the third century AH, which witnessed a revolution in compiling Hadith at the hands of a group of scholars. He was a contemporary of al-Bukhari, Muslim and other scholars who also collected the Prophet’s Hadith.

His start and journey

Abu Dawood was born in 202 AH (817 AD) and died in 275 AH (888 AD). He was born in Sistan but he traveled to many countries of the Islamic world, as was the case with the scholars of this era. Most scholars sought a journey of learning and knowledge. Thus, he visited Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Khorasan.

During his travels to Basra, Kufa, Damascus, Baghdad, Balkh and other cities, Abu Dawood compiled many Hadiths from different sources, primarily from al Bukhari.

“Sunan” Abu Dawud

Imam Abu Dawud completed his famous book “Sunan”, and presented it to Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, who admired it.

His book is not limited to the three types of Hadith; the Sahih (referenced), but also included the Hassan (accepted), Da’eef (weak), as well as the probable and the controversial.

He ended up compiling 4800 Hadiths from the 500 thousand Hadiths he initially collected.

In his book, he took care of all the Hadiths that the scholars had quoted and discussed among them which later turned into the Hadith of directives. It is mentioned that he only cared about the Hadiths of directives and did not include the Hadiths of self-discipline and virtues.

The book of Sunan of Abu Dawud is arranged in the form of volumes. It includes 1871 volumes divided into 35 books. It counted the Hadiths of the prophet, the companions and the affiliated scholars.

About his book, he said: “In my book, I sought to explain the flaws in the Hadith Da’eef (the weak Hadith), but if I didn’t explain anything, the Hadith is valid.”

Explanations of Sunan

A number of scholars wrote interpretive books of Sunan Abu Dawud including: “The landmarks of the Sunan” by Abi Suleiman Al-Khattabi, who died in 388 AH, “Explanations” by al-Suyuti who passed away in 911 AH, and “Clarifications” by al-Sandi who passed away 1138 AH.

Other works

Abu Dawood has many other “non-Sunan” manuscripts, which show the diversity of his knowledge and ability, including: “Al-Masahef”, “Al-Arqam”, al-Marsil ma’a Al-Assanid,” “Al –nasekh w “Al-Mansoukh”, “Al-Salawat,” “Al-Zohd,” “Alamat Al Nobwa”, and many more.

His death

Abu Dawood died in the city of Basra in the year 275 AH after a life full of knowledge and commitment, which made him a striking example in adhering to the prophetic Sunnah (way of life) at work.

His son Abu Bakr walked in his father’s footsteps following the same school of thought.