Namāze Tarāwīḥ

Namāze Tarāwīḥ ka maʻná wa mafhūm
Tarāwīh, tarwīḥah kī jamʻa hai jis kā maʻná hai: ek
dafʻah ārām karnā jab-keh tarāwīḥ ke maʻná hai: mutaʻaddid
bār ārām karnā. Namāze tarāwīḥ kī taʻdād bīs hai is liye woh
chār rakʻat ke baʻd kuc̥h der t̥hăhar kar aur sukūn karne ke baʻd
namāz shurūʻ karnā mustaḥab hai. Ṣaḥāba’e kirām aisā kiyā
karte the, isī waj·h se is namāz kā nām tarāwīḥ rakhā gayā hai.
Namāze tarāwīḥ kā par̥hnā mard-o ʻaurat sab ke liye sunnate
mu’akkidah hai aur us kā c̥hor̥nā jā’iz nahīṅ. Qiyāme Ramaḍān
kī bar̥ī faz̤īlat hai. Ḥaz̤rat Abū Hurayrah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu
se riwāyat hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi
wa-Ālihī wa-sallam logoṅ ko Ramaḍān kī rātoṅ meṅ namāz
par̥hne kī tarġhīb diyā karte the. Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-
Ālihī wa-sallam farmāyā karte:
“Jis ne Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ ḥuṣūle s̲awāb kī
nīyat aur ḥālate īmān ke sāth qiyām kiyā to us ke sābiqah gunāh
baḳhsh diye jāte haiṅ.” [Muslim fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 01: 523, raqam: 759.]
Namāze tarāwīḥ kā waqt ʻishā’ kī namāz ke baʻd witr
se păhle hotā hai aur rāt ke āḳhirī ḥiṣṣe meṅ par̥hnā afz̤al hai.
Magar āj ke daur meṅ namāziyoṅ kī sahūlat kī ḳhāṭir păhle
ḥiṣṣah meṅ par̥hnā afz̤al hai.

Namāze Tarāwīḥ kī kul Rakʻāt
Ṣaḥīḥ qaul ke muṭābiq tarāwīḥ bīs (20) rakʻāt haiṅ aur
yahī Sawāde Aʻẓam yaʻnī Ăhle Sunnat wa-Jamāʻat ke chāroṅ
fiqhi maz̲āhib ka fatwá hai.
1. Ummu al-Mu’minīn Ḥaz̤rat ʻĀ’ishah raḍiya Allāhu
‘anhā se marwī hai keh ek rāt Rasūl Allāh ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi
wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne majid meṅ (nafl) namāz par̥hī to logoṅ
ne bhī Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ke sāth
namāz par̥hī. Phir Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam
ne aglī rāt namāz par̥hī to aur ziyādah log jamʻa ho ga’e, phir
tisrī yā chauthī rāt bhī ikat̥ht̥he huwe lekin Rasūl Allāh ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam un kī ṭaraf tashrīf na lā’e.
Jab ṣubḥ hū’ī to farmāyā: maiṅ ne dekhā jo tum ne kiyā aur
mujhe tumhāre pās (namāz par̥hāne ke liye) āne se ṣirf is
andesha ne rokā keh yeh tum par farz̤ kar dī jā’egī. Yeh
wāqeʻah Ramaḍānu al-mubārak kā hai.
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 01: 380, raqam: 1077,
Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 708, raqam: 1908,
Muslim fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 01: 524, raqam: 761,
Abū Dāwūd fī al-Sunan, 01: 49, raqam: 1373,
Nasā’ī fī al-Sunan, 02: 337, raqam: 1604.]
2. Imām Ibn Ḳhuzaymah aur Imām Ibn Ḥibbān ne Ḥaz̤rat
ʻA’ishah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhā kī riwāyat meṅ in alfāz̤ kā iz̤āfah
kiyā hai:
Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam unheṅ qiyāme Ramaḍān (tarāwīḥ) kī raġhbat dilāyā
karte the lekin ḥukman nahīṅ farmāte the. Cunāṅcheh (tarġhīb
ke liye) farmāte the keh jo shaḳhṣ Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ
īmān aur s̲awāb kī nīyat ke sāth qiyām kartā hai to us ke
sābiqah tamām gunāh baḳhsh diye jāte haiṅ. Phir Ḥuz̤ūr
Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ke
wiṣāl mubārak tak qiyāme Ramaḍān kī yahī ṣūrat bar-qarār
rahī aur yeh ṣūrat ḳhilāfate Abū Bakr raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu aur
ḳhilāfate ʻUmar raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu ke awā’il daur tak jāri rahī
yahāṅ tak keh Ḥaz̤rat ʻUmar raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu ne unheṅ Ḥaz̤rat Ubay bin Kaʻb raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu kī iqtidā’ meṅ
jamʻa kar diyā aur woh unheṅ namāze (tarāwīḥ) par̥hāyā karte
the. Lehāz̲a yeh wo păhlā mauqʻah thā jab log namāze tarāwīḥ
ke liye (bā-qā’idah jamāʻat) ikat̥ht̥he huwe the.”
[Ibn Ḥibbān fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 01: 353, raqam: 141,
Ibn Ḳhuzaymah fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 03: 338, raqam: 2207.]
3. Imām Ibn Ḥajar ʻAsqalānī ne “al-Talḳhīṣ” meṅ bayān
kiyā hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-
Ālihī wa-sallam ne logoṅ ko do rateṅ 20 rakʻat namāze tarāwīḥ
par̥hā’ī, jab tīsri rāt log phir jamʻa ho ga’e to Āp ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam un kī ṭaraf (ḥujra’e mubārak se
bāhar) tashrīf nahīṅ lā’e. Phir ṣubḥ Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-
Ālihī wa-sallam ne farmāyā: mujhe andeshah huwā keh
(namāze tarāwīḥ) tum par farz̤ kar dī jā’egī lekin tum us kī
ṭāqat nah rakhoge.
[ʻAsqalānī fī Talḳhīṣ al-ḥabīr, 02: 21.]
4. Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh Ibn ʻAbbās raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhumā
se marwī hai farmāyā keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam Ramaḍānu al-mubārak men witr
ke ʻilāwah bīs rakʻat tarāwīḥ par̥hā karte the.
[Ṭabarānī fī al-Muʻjam al-awsaṭ, 01ʻ 243, raqam: 798,
Ṭabarānī fī al-Muʻjam al-awsaṭ, 05: 324, raqam: 5440,
Ṭabarānī fī al-Muʻjam al-kabīr, 11: 311, raqam: 12102,
Ibn Abī Shaybah fī al-Muṣannaf, 02: 164, raqam: 7692.]
5. Ḥaz̤rat Sā’ib bin Yazīd raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu ne bayān
kiyā keh ham Ḥaz̤rat ʻUmar Fārūq raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu ke
zamānah men bīs (20) rakʻat tarāwīḥ aur witr par̥hte the.
[Bayhaqī fī al-Sunan al-kubrá, 02: 699, raqam: 4617.]
Maz̲kūrah bālā riwāyāt ṣarāḥatn is par dalālat kartī haiṅ
keh tarāwīḥ kī kul rakʻāt bīs hotī hai. Isī par Ăhle Sunnat wa￾Jamāʻat ke chāroṅ fiqhī maz̲āhib kā ijmāʻ hai aur āj ke daur
meṅ bhī Ḥarmayn sharīfayn meṅ yahī maʻmūl hai. Wahāṅ kul
bīs rakʻāt tarāwīḥ par̥hī jātī haiṅ, jinheṅ pūrī dunyā meṅ barāhe
rāst t̥ī.wī skrīn par dikhāyā jātā hai.
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ Tarāwīḥ ke daurān Qur’āne
Ḥakīm kī Tilāwat kī Miqdār
Māhe Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ tarāwīḥ ke daurān
pūre Qur’āne Ḥakīm kā par̥hnā Sunnat hai ba-sharṭe-keh
muqtdiyoṅ ko us se uktāhat̥ măḥsūs nah ho. Afz̤al yahī hai keh
ṣalāṫuttarāwīḥ ke daurān Qur’āne Ḥakīm kī tilāwat meṅ un ke
ḥālāt ko malḥuẓ rakhā jā’e aur par̥hne meṅ utnī jaldī nah kī jā’e
jis se namāz meṅ ḳhalal wāqeʻ ho.
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ Shabīnah
ʻAṣre ḥāz̤ir meṅ ek din meṅ Qur’āne Ḥakīm kā
shabīnah karāne kā riwāj bahŏt tezī se faroġh pā rahā hai jo dar
ḥaqīqat ṣarīḥan Sunnat ke ḳhilāf hai kyūṅ-keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye
Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam apne Ṣaḥābah
ko daurane māh ek ḳhatme Qur’ān par iktefā karne kī talqīn
farmāyā karte the. Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam
ke ek Ṣaḥābi Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻAmr bin al-ʻĀṣ kā
maʻmūl har roz ek Qur’ān ḳhatm karne kā thā. Āp ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne Ṣaḥābī mauṣūf ko bulāyā aur
ḥasbe dastur unheṅ mahīne meṅ ek Qur’ān ḳhatm karne kī
hidāyat farmā’ī. Unhoṅ ne ʻarz̤ kiyā keh Ḥuz̤ūr ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam mujhe is se ziyādah kī isteṭāʻat hai.
Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne un ke ziyādah
iṣrār par păhle bīs din, phir das din aur āḳhir meṅ har sāt din
ke baʻd ek Qur’ān ḳhatm karne kī ijāzat in alfāz̤men ʻaṭā farmā
dī:
“.Sāt din meṅ ek Qur’ān par̥h liyā karo” ۔ فَاْق ْ َاْہُ فيِ کُلِّ سَبْعٍ
[Muslim fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 813, raqam: 1159.]
Maz̲kūrah bālā ḥadīs̲se yeh nuktah bar̥i ṣarāḥat ke sāth
wāz̤eḥ ho jātā hai keh ek din meṅ Qur’āne Ḥakīm kā shabīnah
karāne kā riwāj ṣarīḥan ḳhilāfe Sunnat hai lehāz̲ā agar
shabīnah karāna maqsṣūd ho to us kā ṣaḥīḥ ṭarīqah Ḥuz̤ūr ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam kī Sunnat ke muṭābiq
ḳhatme Qur’ān ke liye ziyādah se ziyādah sāt se das din yā kam
az kam tīn rāt kī meḥfile shabīnah kā ehtemām kiyā jā’e.
Maḥāfile shabīnah ke liye chand bātoṅ ko peshe naẓar z̤arūr
rakhnā cahiye keh tilāwat kardah Qurā’nī alfāẓ ji sun·ne wāle
us ke alfāẓ maṭālib-o maʻānī ke sāth samajh sakeṅ nah keh
raftār itnī tez ho keh alfāẓ gad̥-mad̥ ho ja’eṅ aur sun·ne wāle
ke kuc̥h bhī palle nah par̥e. Shabīnah yā kisī aur sūrat meṅ
Qurā’ne Karīm itnā par̥hāyā jā’e jis se dil bojhal nah ho jūṅhī
uktāhat̥măḥsūs ho tilāwat ḳhatm kar dī jā’e. Ḥaz̤rat Jundub ibn
ʻAbd Allāh Bajallī raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī hai keh
Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam
ne farmāyā:
“Qur’ān par̥hte raho jab tak tumhārā dil aur zabān kī
muwāfiqat kartā rahe (yaʻnī jab tak uktāhat̥ nah ho) aur jab dil
zabān meṅ iḳhtilāf ho jā’e to ut̥h jā’o.”
[Muslim fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 04: 2054, raqam: 2667.]
Shabīnah meṅ lā’ūd̥ spīkar kā isteʻmāl nā-munāsib hai.
Is liye keh tilāwate Qur’ān sun·nā wājib hai aur nah
sun·ne wālā sharīʻat kī naẓar meṅ gunahgār t̥hăhărtā hai.
Lehaz̲a munāsib aur dānish-mandānah bāt yeh hai keh
shabīnah ke liye awwal to lā’ūd̥ spīkar nah lagāyā jā’e aur agar
us kā isteʻāml nā-guzīr ho to us ke liye andarūnī niẓam ho tā-
keh us kī āwāz masjid kī chār dīwārī se bāhar nah jā sake.
Kya ʻAurat Ḳhawātīn ko Bā-jamāʻat Namāze Tarāwīḥ
par̥hā saktī hai?
ʻAurtoṅ kā mardoṅ ke ʻilāwah alag jamāʻat ke sāth
namāz par̥hne meṅ iḳhtelāf hai baʻz̤ Fuqahā makrūh ke qā’il
haiṅ. Ṣāḥibe Hidāyah ne likhā hai:
ويکرہ للنساء أن يصلين وحدھن الجماعة … …فإن فعلن قامت اإلمامة وسطھن۔
“Akelī ʻauratoṅ kā jamāʻat se namāz par̥hnā makrūh
hai agar unhoṅ ne aisā kiyā to un kī Imām ṣaf ke darmiyān
ḳhar̥ī hogī.”
[Marġhīnānī fī al-Hidāyah, 01: 84.]
Aḥādīs̲e mubārakah se s̲ābit hotā hai keh Ummu al￾Mu’minīn Sayyidah ʻĀ’ishah Ṣiddīqah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhā
aur dīgar Ṣaḥābīyāt namāz meṅ imāmat karātī thīṅ. Imām
Ḥākim ne al-Mustadrak meṅ Sayyidah ʻĀ’ishah Ṣiddīqah
raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhā ke ḥawāle se riwāyat bayān kī hai keh woh
ṣaf ke darimiyān ḳhar̥ī ho kar ʻaurtoṅ kī imāmat karātī thiṅ. [Ḥākim fī al-Mustadrak ʻalá al-ṣaḥīḥayn, 01: 320, raqam:
731.]
Is riwāyat se s̲ābit huwā keh Dīnī tarbīyat aur ʻibādate
Ilāhī meṅ raġhbat aur shauq paidā karne ke liye agar ʻaurateṅ
jamʻa ho kar bā-jamāʻat namāz adā kareṅ to ijāzat hai. Is ṣūrat
meṅ imāmat karāne wālī ḳhātūn ṣaf ke darmiyān meṅ khar̥ī
hogī. ʻĪdayn ke mauqaʻ par ḳhuṭba’e ʻĪd bhī par̥ḥ saktī hai
kyūṅ-keh ʻaurat kā ʻauratoṅ ke sāmne ḳhuṭbah par̥hnā durust
ha. Fuqahā’e kirām ne likhā hai keh ʻaurat, ʻaurtoṅ kī aur nā-
bāliġh, nā-bāliġhoṅ kā Imām ho saktā hai

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s