It is in Quran – لَقَدْ مَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ بَعَثَ فِيهِمْ رَسُو ا لً مِِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِِّيهِمْ
وَيُعَلِِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِين [Certainly did Allah confer (a great) favor upon the believers when He sent among them an Apostle from themselves, reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom, although they had been before in manifest error.] (Aal-i-Imran – 164)
As has been mentioned in the above verse, Tazkia-tun-Nafs requires three things, namely, teaching, training and purification. The Sahabah attained these three things as follows.
(i) Sahabah first accepted Islam on the hands of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى
الله عليه و آله وسلم ). They gave promise of allegiance (بيعة ) by reciting Islamic testimony (کلمہ طيِّبہ ).
It is in Quran – إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَََّّ يَدُ اللََّّ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَنْ نَكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنْكُثُ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَََّّ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا [Indeed, those who pledge allegiance to you, (O’ Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم) they are actually pledging allegiance to Allah. The hand of Allah is over their hands. So, he who breaks his word only breaks it to the detriment of himself. And he who fulfills that which he has promised Allah – He will give him a great reward.] (Al-Fath – 10).
(ii) After the Sahabah accepted Islam, Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله
وسلم ) taught them the Quran.
(iii) Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسل م ) then trained the Sahabah in their day to day living.
It is in Quran – لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللََِّّ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَََّّ وَالْيَوْمَ
الْْخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَََّّ كَثِي ا را [Indeed, in the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و
آله وسلم ) you have an excellent example to follow; for him who hopes in (the meeting with) Allah and the Last Day and does Zikr of Allah extensively.] (Al-Ahzaab – 21)
(iv) When Sahabah sat in the company of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه
و آله وسلم ) their worldly thoughts and ordinary consideration got extinct from their minds and they became exceptionally pious. This aspect is referred in the above Quranic verse as Tazkia ( يُزَكِِّيهِمْ ). It is in Hadith – Hanzalah Al-Usayyidi (رضئ الله تعالى عنه ) said, “O Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), when we are in your company and are reminded of Hellfire and Paradise, we feel as if we are seeing them with our own eyes, but when we go away from you and attend to our wives, children and business, much of these things go out of our minds.” Thereupon the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said, ‘by Him in Whose Hand is my life, if your state of mind remains the same as it is in my presence and you are always busy in the Zikr of Allah, the angels will shake hands with you in your beds and on your roads.’ (Muslim – part of the Hadith). After Prophet Mohammad’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) left this world, the teaching, training and purification of the people was carried out by Khulafa-e-Rashideen, Sahabah, Aimma and Shuyookh of Ihsan.