सुल्तान सिकन्दर शाह लोदी

सिकन्दर शाह लोदी (1489-1517 ई.)
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पूरा नाम- सुल्तान सिकन्दर शाह
अन्य नाम- निजाम ख़ाँ, सिकन्दर लोदी
मृत्यु तिथि- 21 नवम्बर, 1517
पिता/माता- बहलोल लोदी
उपाधि -17 जुलाई, 1489 को ‘सुल्तान सिकन्दर शाह’ की उपाधि से दिल्ली के सिंहासन पर बैठा।
राज्याभिषेक- 17 जुलाई, 1489
युद्ध -1494 ई. में बनारस के समीप हुए एक युद्ध में हुसैनशाह शर्की को परास्त कर बिहार को दिल्ली में मिला लिया।
सुधार-परिवर्तन- अनाज पर से चुंगी हटाना, व्यापारिक कर हटा दिये, जिससे अनाज, कपड़ा एवं आवश्यकता की अन्य वस्तुएँ सस्ती हो गयीं, निर्धनों के लिए मुफ़्त भोजन की व्यवस्था की
वंश -लोदी

अन्य जानकारी : सिकन्दर शाह लोदी स्वयं भी शिक्षित और विद्वान था। विद्वानों को संरक्षण देने के कारण उसका दरबार विद्वानों का केन्द्र स्थल बन गया था। प्रत्येक रात्रि को 70 विद्वान उसके पलंग के नीचे बैठकर विभिन्न प्रकार की चर्चा किया करते थे।

सिकन्दर लोदी बहलोल लोदी का पुत्र एवं उत्तराधिकारी था। इसका मूल नाम ‘निजाम ख़ाँ’ था और यह 17 जुलाई, 1489 को ‘सुल्तान सिकन्दर शाह’ की उपाधि से दिल्ली के सिंहासन पर बैठा। वह स्वर्णकार हिन्दू माँ की संतान था। धार्मिक दृष्टि से सिकन्दर लोदी सहिष्णु था। वह विद्या का पोषक व प्रेमी था। गले की बीमारी के कारण 21 नवम्बर, 1517 को उसकी मृत्यु हो गई।

विजय अभियान
सिंहासन पर बैठने के उपरान्त सुल्तान ने सर्वप्रथम अपने विरोधियों में चाचा आलम ख़ाँ, ईसा ख़ाँ, आजम हुमायूं (सुल्तान का भतीजा) तथा जालरा के सरदार तातार ख़ाँ को परास्त किया। सिकन्दर लोदी ने जौनपुर को अपने अधीन करने के लिए अपने बड़े भाई ‘बारबक शाह’ के ख़िलाफ़ अभियान किया, जिसमें उसे पूर्ण सफलता मिली। जौनपुर के बाद सुल्तान सिकन्दर लोदी ने 1494 ई. में बनारस के समीप हुए एक युद्ध में हुसैनशाह शर्की को परास्त कर बिहार को दिल्ली में मिला लिया। इसके बाद उसने तिरहुत के शासक को अपने अधीन किया। राजपूत राज्यों में सिकन्दर लोदी ने धौलपुर, मन्दरेल, उतागिरि, नरवर एवं नागौर को जीता, परन्तु ग्वालियर पर अधिकार नहीं कर सका। राजस्थान के शासकों पर प्रभावी नियंत्रण रखने के लिए तथा व्यापारिक शहर की नींव डाली।

शासन प्रबन्ध
सिकन्दर शाह लोदी गुजरात के महमूद बेगड़ा और मेवाड़ के राणा सांगा का समकालीन था। उसने दिल्ली को इन दोनों से मुक़ाबले के योग्य बनाया। उसने उन अफ़ग़ान सरदारों का दबाने की कोशिश भी की, जो जातिय स्वतंत्रता के आदी थे और सुल्तान को अपने बराबर समझते थे। सिकन्दर ने जब सरदारों को अपने सामने खड़े होने का हुक्म दिया, ताकि उनके ऊपर अपनी महत्ता प्रदर्शित कर सके। जब शाही फ़रमान भेजा जाता था तो सब सरदारों को शहर से बाहर आकर आदर के साथ उसका स्वागत करना पड़ता था। जिनके पास जागीरें थीं, उन्हें नियमित रूप से उनका लेखा देना होता था और हिसाब में गड़बड़ करने वाले और भ्रष्टाचारी ज़ागीरदारों को कड़ी सजाएँ दी जाती थीं। लेकिन सिकन्दर लोदी को इन सरदारों को क़ाबू में रखने में अधिक सफलता प्राप्त नहीं हुई। अपनी मृत्यु के समय बहलोल लोदी ने अपने पुत्रों और रिश्तेदारों में राज्य बांट दिया था। यद्यपि सिकन्दर एक बड़े संघर्ष के बाद उसे फिर से एकत्र करने में सफल हुआ था, लेकिन सुल्तान के पुत्रों में राज्य के बंटवारे का विचार अफ़ग़ानों के दिमाग़ में बना रहता था।

सुधार कार्य
सिकन्दर शाह ने भूमि के लिए एक प्रमाणिक पैमाना ‘गज-ए-सिकन्दरी’ का प्रचलन करवाया, जो 30 इंच का था। उसने अनाज पर से चुंगी हटा दी और अन्य व्यापारिक कर हटा दिये, जिससे अनाज, कपड़ा एवं आवश्यकता की अन्य वस्तुएँ सस्ती हो गयीं। सिकन्दर लोदी ने खाद्यान्न पर से जकात कर हटा लिया तथा भूमि में गढ़े हुए खज़ाने से कोई हिस्सा नहीं लिया। अपने व्यक्तित्व की सुन्दरता बनाये रखने के लिए वह दाढ़ी नहीं रखता था। सिकन्दर लोदी ने अफ़ग़ान सरदारों से समानता की नीति का परित्याग करके श्रेष्ठता की नीति का अनुसरण किया। सिकन्दर लोदी सल्तनत काल का एक मात्र सुल्तान हुआ, जिसमें खुम्स से कोई हिस्सा नहीं लिया। उसने निर्धनों के लिए मुफ़्त भोजन की व्यवस्था करायी। उसने आन्तरिक व्यापार कर को समाप्त कर दिया तथा गुप्तचर विभाग का पुनर्गठन किया।

सहिष्णु व्यक्ति
धार्मिक दृष्टि से सिकन्दर लोदी अत्यंत सहिष्णु साशक था। उसने हिन्दू मंदिरों को ज़मीनें दान दीं, पुजारी पुरोहितों को बड़े धन दिए, सरकारी खर्चे से मस्जिद का निर्माण कभी नहीं करवाया। एक इतिहासकार के अनुसार, मुसलमानों को ‘ताजिया’ निकालने एवं मुसलमान स्त्रियों को पीरों एवं सन्तों के मजार पर जाने पर सुल्तान ने प्रतिबंध लगाया। क्रोध में उसने शर्की शासकों द्वारा जौनपुर में बनवायी गयी एक मस्जिद तोड़ने का आदेश दिया, यद्यपि उलेमाओं की सलाह पर आदेश वापस ले लिया गया।

मृत्यु
जीवन के अन्तिम समय में सुल्तान सिकन्दर शाह के गले में बीमारी होने से 21 नवम्बर, 1517 को उसकी मृत्यु हो गई। आधुनिक इतिहासकार सिकन्दर लोदी को लोदी वंश का सबसे सफल शासक मानते है। सिकन्दर लोदी कहता था कि, “यदि मै अपने एक ग़ुलाम को भी पालकी में बैठा दूँ तो, मेरे आदेश पर मेरे सभी सरदार उसे अपने कन्धों पर उठाकर ले जायेगें।” सिकन्दर लोदी प्रथम सुल्तान था, जिसने आगरा को अपनी राजधानी बनाया। निष्पक्ष न्याय के लिए मियां भुआं को नियुक्त किया। सुल्तान शहनाई सुनने का शौक़ीन था।

विद्वानों का संरक्षणदाता
सिकन्दर शाह लोदी विद्या का पोषक था। वह विद्वानों और दार्शनिकों को बड़े-बड़े अनुदान देता था। इसलिए उसके दरबार में अरब और ईरान सहित विभिन्न जातियों और देशों के सुसंस्कृत विद्वान पहुँचते थे। सुल्तान के प्रयत्नों से कई संस्कृत ग्रंथ फ़ारसी भाषा में अनुवादित हुए। उसके आदेश पर संस्कृत के एक आयुर्वेद ग्रंथ का फ़ारसी में ‘फरहंगे सिकन्दरी’ के नाम से अनुवाद हुआ। उसका उपनाम ‘गुलरुखी’ था। इसी उपनाम से वह कविताएँ लिखा करता था। उसने संगीत के एक ग्रन्थ ‘लज्जत-ए-सिकन्दरशाही’ की रचना की।

सिकन्दर शाह लोदी स्वयं भी शिक्षित और विद्वान था। विद्वानों को संरक्षण देने के कारण उसका दरबार विद्वानों का केन्द्र स्थल बन गया था। प्रत्येक रात्रि को 70 विद्वान उसके पलंग के नीचे बैठकर विभिन्न प्रकार की चर्चा किया करते थे। उसने मस्जिदों को सरकारी संस्थाओं का स्वरूप प्रदान करके उन्हें शिक्षा का केन्द्र बनाने का प्रयत्न किया था। मुस्लिम शिक्षा में सुधार करने के लिए उसने तुलम्बा के विद्वान शेख़ अब्दुल्लाह और शेख़ अजीजुल्लाह को बुलाया था। उसके शासनकाल में हिन्दू भी बड़ी संख्या में फ़ारसी सीखने लगे थे और उन्हें उच्च पदों पर रखा गया था।

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Lodhi Dynasty (Sultan Sikandar Khan Lodhi):

Sikandar Lodhi, whose original name was Nizam Khan, ascended the throne of Delhi in 1489 A.D. and ruled up to 1517 A.D. He has been generally regarded as the greatest Sultan of the Lodhi dynasty.
Sikandar Lodhi was the son of Bahlul Lodhi and his mother was a Hindu goldsmith women. After the death of Sultan Bahlul Lodhi, he became the Sultan of Delhi Sultanate.

(His Conquests):

Sikandar Lodhi was a brave soldier who, soon after his accession to the throne, set himself to the task of preserving and extending the authority of the Delhi Empire.
1. First of all he set his hands on those chiefs from whom he feared disorder and rebellion.
2. Then he marched against his elder brother Barbak, who had assumed the title of an independent king. He was defeated and taken prisoner but was later on released.
3. Then setting his house in order he paid his attention towards Hussain Sharqi of Jaunpur who was once again busy making preparation for the recovery of his ancestral dominions. Husain Sharqi was defeated near Banaras and his army was put to an utter rout. Thus the whole of Jaunpur passed into his hands.
4. In 1495 Bihar was easily conquered and the Sultan appointed his own officers to carry on the work of administration.
5. As the Sultan wanted to carry on the work of consolidation side by side with his conquests he, instead of fighting with the ruler of Bengal, concluded a treaty with him and thus saved much of his resources.
6. The princes of Dholpur, Chanderi and Gwalior were also subdued.
7. With a view to exercising an effective control over his governors and fief-holders of Etawah, Biyana, Koil, Gwalior and Dholpur, Sikandar Lodhi laid the foundation of a new city of Agra in 1503 A.D. and made it as the headquarters of his army.
8. All those Afgan jagirdars who were inciting Fateh Khan, Sultan’s brother, to rise in revolt against the king were severely punished.

(Administration):

Sikandar Lodhi was not only a brave soldier but also a great administrator. Though mainly engaged in waging wars against the hostile neighbours and rebellious governors, he tried to organize the state machinery on efficient lines.
1. First of all he took various steps against the Afghan nobles and suppressed their individualistic tendencies very firmly. The accounts of various fief-holders were thoroughly checked and cases of embezzlement were severely punished.
2. A strict eye was kept on the provisional governors so much so that they began to receive the royal firmans well in advance by meeting the royal messenger on the way.
3. An efficient system of espionage was maintained to keep a strict watch over the provincial governors, nobles and other lawless elements of the state.
4. Like Balban he always maintained the dignity of his office and did not mix so freely with the people. He never assigned any high post to a man of low birth.
5. The interest of the poor was thoroughly looked after. Every year a list of the poor was presented to him and he gave them six months provisions according to their requirement.
6. Every attempt was made to encourage agriculture. Several corn duties were abolished to give impetus to agriculture.
7. For the promotion of trade various new roads were constructed and every attempt was made to render them free from thieves and robbers. In this way Sultan Sikandar Lodhi organized and regulated the whole machinery of his administration.

(Religious Policy):

Sultan Sikandar Lodhi encouraged Hindus to embrace Islam and for this purpose he employed both sword and money.

(Character and Achievements):

He had been generally acclaimed as the greatest of the Lodhi Sultans:
1. He was a great conqueror who tried to revive the greatness of the Delhi Sultanate. He greatly extended the boundaries of his empire by annexing Jaunpur, Chanderi, Dholpur and Gwalior. He successfully kept the turbulent chiefs and the rebellious governors under his control.
2. He was also a good administrator. He devised various ways and means to crush the individualistic tendencies of the various fief-holders and governors with a heavy hand. Their accounts were specially checked and cases of embezzlement were severely dealt with. Every step was taken for the encouragement of agriculture and trade and commerce. Nothing was spared for the welfare of the people.
3. Sultan Sikandar Lodhi was also a great lover of justice. He himself heard the complaints of even the poorest of his subjects and gave judgment with complete impartiality.
4. He was also a great patron of art and literature. He founded the new city of Agra and decorated it with many splendid buildings and great edifices. He himself was a great scholar who could compose verses in elegant Persian. He possessed a retentive memory and could store a good deal of useful knowledge. He extended his patronage to the learned and caused many great works of Sanskrit to be translated into Persian,
5. Sultan Sikandar Lodhi is considered a fanatic ruler by hindus but still most of the historians regard Sultan Sikandar Lodhi as the ablest of all the rulers of his dynasty.
Sultan Sikandar Lodhi died in 1517 and was succeeded by his son, Ibrahim Lodhi.
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Lodhi Dynasty (Military Organization of Lodhi Empire):

The Lodhi Army consisted mainly of cavalry, elephant and infantry. The Lodhi horsemen were excellent riders and fine archers. They also had learnt some of the Mongol tactics viz.lying in ambush, luring away the enemy far from its strong base sending out scouts before engaging the enemy and avoiding a pitched battle when conscious of their own weakness. They also knew about the famous flanking movements, the tulughma. The army consisted of regular recruits maintained by the Sultan at state expense and with jagirs, and irregulars supplied by the governors and jagirdars and nobles and equipped and paid by them.

Regulars:
The regular army mostly consisted of the Afghans of the various tribes but also had Rajputs, Miwatis, with a contingent of Mughals in the personal service of the Sultan and the princes. The army was raised by the ‘Chief Bakhshi ( Bakhshi-i Mamalik ) , whose position was like that of the Minister of War, assisted by his Deputy. He also played a double role as the pay-master of the forces, in which capacity he was a civil officer of the crown. Sultan Sikandar Lodhi followed the practice of granting jagirs to soldiers and asked them to have their horses and arms from their
jagirs. The regular army consisted of elephants, cavalry, foot, matchlock-bearers, archers and artillery men, and in times of war served under a commander-in-chief, who was the principal war Councillor when the Sultan was personally present in the field. Thus Qutb Khan Lodhi was Bahlul’s Commander-in-chief; Mian Maruf bore that office for 30 years during the reign of Sultan Sikandar Lodhi and Ibrahim, and ‘Azam Humayun Khan Sherwani that of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi. The holder of this office was known as the Amir-ul-umara.
The officer over ten ‘soldiers was known as Mir-i-Daha or Mir Daha, of 100 a Sadah, of 1,000 a Hazari. It is difficult to give in figure the idea of the Sultan’s standing army. Islam Khan Lodhi, the uncle of Bahlul and governor of Sirhind had 12 thousand Afghan and Mughal soldiers. Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi commanded about 100,000 soldiers at Panipat, consisting of regulars and feudal militia.The standing army of the Sultan does not seem to have been very much above 50 thousand. We do not know if branding was re-introduced by the Lodhi Sultans to prevent fraudulent musters. Sultan Sikandar Lodhi himself inspected recruits for determining their status and pay. A low born man had no chance of entering his service.

The Feudal Army:
The major portion of the Lodhi army consisted of feudal militia. Each local governor and jagirdar (which included many of the court-nobles) was expected to keep a contingent of cavalry according to his rank or ‘ mansab’ which determined his pay. Darya Khan Lohani, governor of Bihar Sarkar, Nasir Khan Lohani, governor of Ghazipur (Sarkar) and Shaikhzada Muhammad Qurban Farmali, The feudal governor of Oudh (Sarkar) held mansabs of 30/40 thousand; ‘Azam Humayun Sherwani governor of Kalpi Sarkar of 12 thousand,! Bhikhan Khan of 7 thousand. The provincial governors were paid salary out of the Sarkar exchequer, according to their military rank. The entire army received a share of the war-booty and was dissolved as soon as the campaign was over, or so soon as the Sultan permitted them to go The concentration of military strength in the hands’ of jagirdars and governors was a source of weakness rather than of strength to the state and brought into existence a constant tug-of-war between the centrifugal and centripetal forces, which bore its worst fruit during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi.
The mobilization order was given by the pitching of red tents and beating of drums. On the march, an advance party led the way and after halt at night-fall, the army camps assumed the proportions of a city. The baggage and stores and tent and the female members of the Sultan’s family remained in the rear and provisions of grain were supplied through the itinerant grain merchants the banjaras’.


The battle formation consisted of the traditional five-fold divisions the vanguard, the right, left, the , center and the rear. Some times different Afghan tribes took their position and battle in the right, left or center and the entire formation. The army was commanded by the commander-in-chief, The main instrument of attack and defense consisted of the cavalry and elephant bearing archers, artillery being poor and slow in those days. The commander-in-chief or the Sultan took his position in the center, seated on an elephant which very often became the target of attack and whose flight, disability or death decided the chances of war. In a siege, the catapult’, the ballista were used for throwing stones and rockets; match-locks, mortars, artillery and gunpowder for battering walls.
The corps of elephants was prized more as a symbol of one’s dignity than as an efficient and properly integrated unit in the army as a whole. Elephants were mainly used in siege operations and in dispersing an army , disorganized by heavy cavalry charge. Infantry served mainly as a recruiting bade for the cavalry.
The war was generally begun with a skirmish, the parties retiring for rest and recuperation during nights, but night attack was always conceived of as a very effective method of probing the enemy strength. The practice of taking hostages was very common and prisoners of war especially the higher commands were well-treated. The Qutb Khan Lodhi a prisoner in Jaunpur was looked after by Bibi Raji, the mother of Husain Shah SharqI. The Sultan Bahlul Lodhi once conveyed to her husband Bibi Malka Jahan, the wife of Husain Shah taken captive in war.

Intelligence Network of Lodhi Empire :
Sultan Sikandar Khan Lodhi established an extremely efficient intelligence setup and created a strong governance framework. One story concerning his justice says that once, he was annoyed with a long, pending case that was going on for months, and one day he asked his ministers not to leave the palace unless the case was settled. Additionally, he used to send two farmans every day to his army no matter how far they are camped, one in morning and one in night and so strong was his intelligence network and so updated was he on the army’s news and happenings in his parganas that it was believed he possessed a secret lamp of Allaudin with two guardian jinns.

#LodhiSultanateHisto
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Lodhi Dynasty (The Tactics):

The Lodhi Army consisted mainly of cavalry, elephant and infantry. The Lodhi horsemen were excellent riders and fine archers. They also had learnt some of the Mongol tactics viz.lying in ambush, luring away the enemy far from its strong base sending out scouts before engaging the enemy and avoiding a pitched battle when conscious of their own weakness. The army consisted of regular recruits maintained by the Sultan at state expense and with jagirs, and irregulars supplied by the governors and jagirdars and nobles and equipped and paid by them.

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